Category Archives: Schizophrenia

Late-Onset Schizophrenia

Psychoses are among the most severe psychiatric disorders, and among them schizophrenia is arguably the most expensive one. Like other psychoses, schizophrenia can manifest in people of almost any age, including middle age and old age, and is characterised by delusions, hallucinations, bizarre behaviour and loss of touch with reality. The focus of most basic… Read More »

Treatment for Late-Onset Schizophrenia

As with other types or forms of schizophrenia, neuroleptic or anti-psychotic drugs constitute the mainstay of treatment for late-onset schizophrenia. Conventional or typical neuroleptics Clinical experience and anecdotal reports suggest that neuroleptic therapy produces a positive outcome (remission or reduction in symptoms, and earlier discharge from hospital) in a majority of older patients with schizophrenia… Read More »

Schizophrenia: Current Therapies

Etiology and Pathophysiology Schizophrenia has varied and ominous symptoms that generally begin in late adolescence or early adulthood and usually continue throughout life. The diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia have evolved over the past 20 years based on the different iterations of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and the International Classification of Diseases.… Read More »

Schizophrenia: Atypical Antipsychotics

Many atypical antipsychotics are available. In addition to those reviewed in the following sections, atypical agents include perospirone (Sumitomo’s Lullan) and zotepine (Fujisawa’s Lodopin, Aventis’s Nipolept, Orion Pharma’ s Zoleptil, generics). These drugs are not discussed in detail here because their mechanisms of action are similar to those of other atypical agents, they are launched… Read More »

Schizophrenia: Neurokinin Antagonists

One potential competitive advantage for the neurokinin antagonists over other schizophrenia drugs is their theoretical efficacy in the treatment of depression. In any one year, an estimated 20-40% of schizophrenia patients are vulnerable to a major depressive episode. As a result, any drug that treats this comorbidity in addition to psychotic symptoms would find a… Read More »

Schizophrenia: Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors

Three acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are on the market for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease: Japan&Japan/Shire/Janssen’s galantamine (Reminyl), Eisai/Pfizer’s donepezil (Aricept), and Novartis’s rivastigmine (Exelon/Prometax). Clinical studies evaluating these agents in the treatment of the cognitive dysfunction and negative symptoms associated with schizophrenia have been performed, but only galantamine appears to be in commercial development for schizophrenia… Read More »

Schizophrenia: AMPA Receptor Modulators

Glutamate modulators for the treatment of schizophrenia have generated some interest because several lines of evidence support the idea that a weakened glutamatergic tone in the brains of schizophrenics upsets a balance between glutamatergic and dopaminergic transmission. This imbalance may then predispose schizophrenics to a risk of sensory overload and exaggerated responsiveness of the monoaminergic… Read More »

Schizophrenia: Serotonin-Dopamine Antagonists

Serotonin-dopamine antagonists, together with dopamine partial agonists, are considered atypical antipsychotics. serotonin-dopamine antagonists have been used for the treatment of schizophrenia since the early 1990s, and currently marketed serotonin-dopamine antagonists include Novartis’s clozapine (Clozaril/Leponex, generics), Janssen’s risperidone (Risperdal), Eli Lilly’s olanzapine (Zyprexa), AstraZeneca’s quetiapine (Seroquel), and Pfizer’s ziprasidone (Geodon/Zeldox). TABLE . Emerging Therapies in Development… Read More »

Pharmacotherapy in the Treatment of People With Schizophrenia

The pharmacological agents most primarily associated with treatment of schizophrenia are grouped in a large and heterogeneous family, the antipsychotics. Recently, this family has been subdivided into the typicals, or neuroleptics, and the atypicals (see Tables Selected Typical Antipsychotic Drugs and Their Characteristics and Atypical Antipsychotics: Relative Potencies and Side Effects). The neuroleptics are so… Read More »

Changing Views of Schizophrenia and Antipsychotic Agents

In the years following the introduction of the first antipsychotic drugs (the mid-1950s), their most clinically salient effect was suppression of the symptoms of acute psychosis, including delusions, hallucinations, thought disorder, agitation, and gross disorganization. The past several years of research on the outcome of pharmacotherapy for schizophrenia have seen an emphasis on the domains… Read More »