Tag Archives: Amantadine

Pharmacological Treatment of Dementia

General guidelines for psychotropic medication use in frail elderly patients are applicable. Systematic evidence to support the effectiveness of particular psychotropic drugs in dementia patients is limited. Therefore, choice of drug class may be based on clinical evidence, and choice of agent is often based on the side-effect profile and on the characteristics of a… Read More »

Treatment for Late-Onset Schizophrenia

As with other types or forms of schizophrenia, neuroleptic or anti-psychotic drugs constitute the mainstay of treatment for late-onset schizophrenia. Conventional or typical neuroleptics Clinical experience and anecdotal reports suggest that neuroleptic therapy produces a positive outcome (remission or reduction in symptoms, and earlier discharge from hospital) in a majority of older patients with schizophrenia… Read More »

Pharmacological Treatment of Pain

While medications are often prescribed for all types of chronic pain, research has consistently shown that several classes have proven efficacy for the treatment of neuropathic pain. Ideally, pharmacotherapy of pain would be specifically selected on the basis of considerations of etiology (e.g., ischemic, neuropathic), pathophysiology (e.g., demyelination, central pain), and anatomy (e.g., C fibers,… Read More »

Adjunctive Pharmacotherapy and Related Issues

Managing antipsychotic side effects. Antipsychotic drugs produce problematic side effects in many individuals (see Table Side Effects of Typical Antipsychotic Drugs). A major category of side effects results from neurotransmitter dysregulation of the extra-pyramidal motor system. It is thought that these side effects are the result of an imbalance of dopaminergic and acetylcholinergic activity in… Read More »

Recommendations For The Use And Selection Of Antipsychotics

1. Only one antipsychotic medication should be used at a time. Combinations of antipsychotics should not be tried until monotherapy with different available agents, including conventional antipsychotics, has been used for an extended period of time, for at least six weeks, at therapeutic doses (for each medication), or when single medications at therapeutic levels bring… Read More »

Common Side Effects: Monitoring and Management Recommendations

Extrapyramidal Side Effects Antipsychotic-induced EPS may occur acutely or after long-term treatment. First-generation antipsychotics, in particular high-potency neuroleptics, are more likely than second-generation antipsychotics to cause EPS when the drugs are used at usual therapeutic doses. However, as can be noted in Table Selected side effects of commonly used antipsychotic medications, considerable variation in the… Read More »

Antipsychotic Drug Risperidone (Risperdal)

Information About Antipsychotic Drug Risperidone (Risperdal and Risperdal Consta) for Patients and Families Risperidone (Risperdal) is an antipsychotic drug used in the treatment of psychotic disorders, including schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder and psychotic depression, and acute mania in bipolar disorder. Risperidone is a second-generation antipsychotic, a new class of medicines that have actions different from those… Read More »

Antipsychotic Drug Olanzapine (Zyprexa)

Information About Antipsychotic Drug Olanzapine (Zyprexa) for Patients and Families Olanzapine (Zyprexa) was first marketed in the United States in 1996, primarily for treatment of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. However, olanzapine was also shown to be effective for treating mood disorders, such as bipolar disorder, and received an indication from the U.S. Food and Drug… Read More »

Intercurrent Infections

The most common infections in individuals with dementia are urinary tract infection (UTI), upper respiratory infection, lower respiratory tract infection, cutaneous infection, gastrointestinal infection and eye infection. These infections are almost an inevitable consequence of advanced dementia for several reasons. There is an evidence that immune responses are reduced in advanced dementia, decreasing the ability… Read More »

Delirium: Etiology

Delirium has a wide variety of etiologies, which may occur alone or in combination (). These include primary cerebral disorders, systemic disturbances that affect cerebral function, drug and toxin exposure (including intoxication and withdrawal), and a range of factors that can contribute to delirium but have an uncertain role as etiological factors by themselves (psychological… Read More »