Tag Archives: Amphetamines

Stimulants in the treatment of adults with ADHD

Stimulant treatment of adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder can be characterized as follows. Stimulants represent the first-line pharamcotherapy for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults. The two main types of stimulants, methylphenidate and amphetamine compounds, have different effects and are metabolized differently. Methylphenidate does not show up on urine drug screens. Stimulants are not… Read More »

Narcolepsy and Other Disorders of Excessive Daytime Sleepiness

Narcolepsy is a prime example of a disorder with dysfunction of a specific sleep state, in this case REM sleep. Isolated fragments of REM sleep intrude into wakefulness, and the result is the characteristic symptoms that invariably cause excessive daytime sleepiness. Narcolepsy in humans was first described in 1880 by the French neurologist Gelineau. Since… Read More »

Term “Psychotropic Drugs”

Question. I’m a medical student who is trying to find out exactly what the term “psychotropic drugs” includes. Does it cover marijuana and other street drugs, or is it only for mood-altering drugs (developed by pharmaceutical companies) without euphoric effects? What is the true definition? Answer. Good question, but a bit like trying to nail… Read More »

Information about ADHD for Patients and Families

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric disorder in young and school-aged children. However, it is not merely a childhood disorder. In recent years, an increasing number of adults have been diagnosed with ADHD, raising some concern that it may be overdiagnosed. Estimates of the prevalence (i.e., percentage of the population affected) of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder… Read More »

GAD: Differential Diagnosis and Assessment

Physical factors that may initiate and maintain anxiety-like somatic disturbances include chronic use of drugs (e.g., stimulants such as amphetamines or caffeine) or withdrawal syndromes (e.g., from alcohol, benzodiazepines, or opiates). The exclusion of general medical conditions such as hyperthyroidism is given specific mention in both the ICD-10 and DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. DSM-IV requires that… Read More »

Epilepsy in Adolescence

The passage from childhood to adulthood is surrounded by issues of rebellion, indepen dence, heightened self-consciousness, experimentation, dating, driving, and concerns for the future. Adolescents and their parents share the highs and lows of this often stormy period, and communication between them is essential to temper its turbulence. This is a challenge for both parents… Read More »

Food, Alcohol, and Drugs

Eating And Appetite Clinical depression changes more than just your mood. It also can affect appetite. Serotonin, one of the chemical messengers involved in depression, helps regulate the sense of fullness after eating. When depression alters the level of serotonin, it can also disrupt appetite. Some depressed people lose their appetites. No food tastes good.… Read More »

Drugs Disrupting Sleep

Stimulants Caffeine. Caffeine is a methylxanthine present in a variety of common foods and drinks (). It also is a component of several prescription and OTC drugs and drugs sold on the street as “look-alikes” for amphetamines. Caffeine is an adenosine antagonist, blocking the inhibitory activity of adenosine and thereby producing its stimulatory effects. A… Read More »

Delirium: Etiology

Delirium has a wide variety of etiologies, which may occur alone or in combination (). These include primary cerebral disorders, systemic disturbances that affect cerebral function, drug and toxin exposure (including intoxication and withdrawal), and a range of factors that can contribute to delirium but have an uncertain role as etiological factors by themselves (psychological… Read More »

An Alternative Drug-Centred Model of Drug Action

The disease-centred model suggests that the important or ‘therapeutic’ effects of drugs are achieved by their effects on a particular disease process. By acting on the mechanisms of the disease, drugs move the human organism from an abnormal physiological state towards a more normal one. In contrast, the drug-centred model suggests that drugs themselves create… Read More »