Tag Archives: Ascendin

Benzodiazepine Hypnotics

Benzodiazepine hypnotics can be categorized into three groups based on their pharmacokinetic characteristics: short-acting, intermediate-acting, and long-acting. Short-acting benzodiazepines such as triazolam (Pfizer’s Halcion, generics) generally have elimination half-lives of 6 hours or less; intermediate-acting benzodiazepines such as temazepam (Mallinckrodf s Restoril, generics), oxazepam (Wyeth’s Serax / Serepax, Boehringer-Ingelheim’s Adumbran, generics), and lormetazepam (Wyeth’s Loramet,… Read More »

Therapy for PTSD: Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors

The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are now widely used in anxiety disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder. There are underlying reasons for the relevance of serotonin to posttraumatic stress disorder. In some animal models, evidence suggests that serotonin type 2 (5-HT2) receptor pathways are mediators of conditioned avoidance as well as resilience to stress and learned… Read More »


The antinociceptive pain pathways have been described in detail in site. The descending pathways are opioid and monoaminergically based. The opioid analgesics appear to produce analgesia by inhibiting the ascending pain pathways (which carry nociceptive information to the brain), and activate the descending pain control pathways, which go from the CNS down the ventromedial medulla… Read More »

Treatment of Hypersomnias

This post focuses on treatment of the hypersomnias of central origin as defined in the second edition of the International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD-2). Rational therapy begins with an understanding of the normal anatomy, physiology, and neurochemistry of central wake / sleep mechanisms. Basic Wake Systems The ascending reticular activating system, defined in part… Read More »