Tag Archives: Atenolol

Treatment of Anxiety in the Medically Ill

Psychotherapy An overemphasis on psychopharmacology in the care of medically ill patients may result in overlooking the value of psychotherapy. The first step in the treatment of anxiety is to spend time listening to and talking with the patient. Just as in psychotherapy with any patient, empathic listening is a powerful tool to relieve distress.… Read More »

Preventive Treatment for Migraine

Migraine is a common episodic headache disorder characterized by attacks that consist of various combinations of headache and neurologie, gastrointestinal, and autonomie symptoms. It has a one-year prevalence of approximately 18% in women, 6% in men, and 4% in children. The second edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-2) subclassifies migraine into migraine… Read More »

Specific Migraine-Preventive Agents

β-Adrenergic Blockers β-blockers, the most widely used class of drugs in prophylactic migraine treatment, are approximately 50% effective in producing a greater than 50% reduction in attack frequency. Rabkin et al. serendipitously discovered propranolol’s effectiveness in headache treatment in patients who were being treated for angina. The Agency for Healthcare Policy and Research (AHCPR) Technical… Read More »

Treatments for Social Phobia

Social phobia was first described as a unique, diagnosable disorder in DSM-III (American Psychiatric Association 1980). From a historical perspective, the disorder has been recognized since the middle of the 19th century, when Casper described erythrophobia (Casper 1902). Marks (1970) separated social phobia from other types of anxiety, including agoraphobia and simple phobia; thus, he… Read More »

Treatment for Anxiety Disorders in the Medically Ill

Treatment of anxiety disorders in the medically ill depends upon the relationship between anxiety symptoms and physical disease. Some patients have persisting symptoms or exacerbations of anxiety disorders that existed before the onset of physical disease. In that case, treatment should be similar to that given to patients without comorbid illness. Other patients, perhaps the… Read More »

Treatment for Social Phobia

Management Effective pharmacological and psychological treatments of social phobia are available. At present, phenelzine is the pharmacological treatment of choice, and cognitive-behavioral group treatment is the psychological treatment of choice for the generalized subtype (). These treatments appear to be about equally effective and, when combined, may work better than either treatment alone. Evidence favoring… Read More »

Treatment for GAD

Management Most patients with generalized anxiety disorder present to, and are managed by, primary physicians, although some with more severe symptoms and comorbid disorders are referred to psychiatrists or other mental health professionals. Psychological and pharmacological treatments are both effective, but residual symptoms and stress-related vulnerability commonly persist. Most patients should receive some form of… Read More »

Drugs Disrupting Sleep

Stimulants Caffeine. Caffeine is a methylxanthine present in a variety of common foods and drinks (). It also is a component of several prescription and OTC drugs and drugs sold on the street as “look-alikes” for amphetamines. Caffeine is an adenosine antagonist, blocking the inhibitory activity of adenosine and thereby producing its stimulatory effects. A… Read More »

The drugs used for blood pressure control and headache prevention

The following medications are used for blood pressure control and headache prevention. Match each with it mechanism of action. Use each answer once, more than once, or not at all. A. Lisinopril (Prinivil, Zestril) B. Candesartan (Atacand) C. Atenolol (Tenormin) D. Verapamil (Calan) E. Clonidine (Catapres) 1. a2 Agonists 2. Angiotensin II receptor blocker 3.… Read More »

Irreversible, Nonselective Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors

The suggestion that monoamine oxidase inhibitors might have efficacy in the treatment of social phobia first came from two different sources. One line of evidence consisted of four placebo-controlled studies of phenelzine on mixed phobic populations. Although those studies had important methodological problems, such as lack of operationalized diagnostic criteria, small sample sizes, and use… Read More »