Tag Archives: Benzodiazepine

Phenobarbital: 15 mg; 30mg ; 60mg; 100mg. Uses and Administration

Phenobarbital is a barbiturate that may be used as an antiepileptic to control partial and generalised tonic-clonic seizures. It is also used as part of the emergency management of acute seizures including status epilepticus. The dose should be adjusted to the needs of the individual patient to achieve adequate control of seizures; this usually requires… Read More »

Lamotrigine: 25mg, 50mg, 100mg, 150mg, 200mg, 250mg. Uses and Administration

Lamotrigine, a phenyltriazine compound, is an antiepileptic used mainly for monotherapy or adjunctive treatment of partial seizures and primary and secondarily generalised tonic-clonic seizures. It may be used for seizures associated with the Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and for the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder. The doses given below for the use of lamotrigine in epilepsy are… Read More »

Carbamazepine: 100mg, 200mg, 300mg, 400mg. Uses and Administration

Carbamazepine is a dibenzazepine derivative with antiepileptic and psychotropic properties. It is used to control secondarily generalised tonic-clonic seizures and partial seizures, and in some primary generalised seizures. Carbamazepine is also used in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia and has been tried with variable success in glossopharyngeal neuralgia and other severe pain syndromes associated with… Read More »

Gabapentin: 100mg, 300mg, 400mg, 600mg, 800mg. Uses and Administration

Gabapentin is an antiepileptic used as monotherapy or adjunctive therapy in the treatment of partial seizures with or without secondary generalisation. It is not generally considered effective for absence seizures. Although gabapentin is an analogue of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), it is neither a GABA agonist nor antagonist and its mechanism of action is unknown. Gabapentin… Read More »

Pharmacological Treatment of Dementia

General guidelines for psychotropic medication use in frail elderly patients are applicable. Systematic evidence to support the effectiveness of particular psychotropic drugs in dementia patients is limited. Therefore, choice of drug class may be based on clinical evidence, and choice of agent is often based on the side-effect profile and on the characteristics of a… Read More »

Mixed Dementia and Dementia in Disseminated Brain Diseases

Vascular Dementia Vascular dementia is defined as the dementia resulting from ischemic, ischemic-hypoxic, or hemorrhagic brain lesions due to cerebrovascular or cardiovascular pathology. Clinical findings in vascular dementia are heterogeneous and depend to a great extent on the speed, total volume, and localization of the lesions. Typically, the onset is in later life, and the… Read More »

Suicidality: Management in Medical Inpatient Settings

For a patient who survives a recent suicide attempt, the emergency department usually is the first stop for assessment and triage. If the patient is medically cleared, ideally a psychiatrist, but sometimes another mental health professional, evaluates the patient and decides whether psychiatric inpatient or outpatient management is the appropriate disposition. It is important for… Read More »

Alzheimer’s Therapy: GABA Receptor Inverse Agonists

Overview. Benzodiazepine (BZD) drugs increase the inhibitory effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) interneurons on cholinergic neurons. However, BZD drugs that function as antagonists, or inverse agonists, at receptor sites could have an excitatory effect on cholinergic neurons, thereby increasing levels of cholinergic activity and thus reducing the effects of neuronal loss in Alzheimer’s disease patients.… Read More »

Treatment of Insomnia

Several classes of medications are used in the treatment of insomnia. They include the benzodiazepines, non-benzodiazepine hypnotics, antidepressants, and over-the-counter medications. There are six benzodiazepines that are specifically marketed as hypnotics in the United States or in Canada: flurazepam, temazepam, triazolam, estazolam, quazepam, and (in Canada only) nitrazepam. Several other benzodiazepines (e.g., lorazepam, clonazepam, oxazepam),… Read More »

Bipolar Depression: Treatment Acute Pharmacotherapy

Lithium For many years, lithium was considered to be the standard treatment for bipolar depression. Improvement rates of 80% have been reported in nine placebo-controlled studies, conducted mostly in the 1970s. Response rates for lithium were equivalent to those for tricyclic antidepressants (tricyclic antidepressants). A recent study of outpatients with bipolar depression compared the efficacy… Read More »