Tag Archives: Benzodiazepines

Phenobarbital: 15 mg; 30mg ; 60mg; 100mg. Uses and Administration

Phenobarbital is a barbiturate that may be used as an antiepileptic to control partial and generalised tonic-clonic seizures. It is also used as part of the emergency management of acute seizures including status epilepticus. The dose should be adjusted to the needs of the individual patient to achieve adequate control of seizures; this usually requires… Read More »

Lamotrigine: 25mg, 50mg, 100mg, 150mg, 200mg, 250mg. Uses and Administration

Lamotrigine, a phenyltriazine compound, is an antiepileptic used mainly for monotherapy or adjunctive treatment of partial seizures and primary and secondarily generalised tonic-clonic seizures. It may be used for seizures associated with the Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and for the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder. The doses given below for the use of lamotrigine in epilepsy are… Read More »

Pharmacological Treatment of Dementia

General guidelines for psychotropic medication use in frail elderly patients are applicable. Systematic evidence to support the effectiveness of particular psychotropic drugs in dementia patients is limited. Therefore, choice of drug class may be based on clinical evidence, and choice of agent is often based on the side-effect profile and on the characteristics of a… Read More »

Mixed Dementia and Dementia in Disseminated Brain Diseases

Vascular Dementia Vascular dementia is defined as the dementia resulting from ischemic, ischemic-hypoxic, or hemorrhagic brain lesions due to cerebrovascular or cardiovascular pathology. Clinical findings in vascular dementia are heterogeneous and depend to a great extent on the speed, total volume, and localization of the lesions. Typically, the onset is in later life, and the… Read More »

Suicidality: Management in Medical Inpatient Settings

For a patient who survives a recent suicide attempt, the emergency department usually is the first stop for assessment and triage. If the patient is medically cleared, ideally a psychiatrist, but sometimes another mental health professional, evaluates the patient and decides whether psychiatric inpatient or outpatient management is the appropriate disposition. It is important for… Read More »

Treatment of Insomnia

Several classes of medications are used in the treatment of insomnia. They include the benzodiazepines, non-benzodiazepine hypnotics, antidepressants, and over-the-counter medications. There are six benzodiazepines that are specifically marketed as hypnotics in the United States or in Canada: flurazepam, temazepam, triazolam, estazolam, quazepam, and (in Canada only) nitrazepam. Several other benzodiazepines (e.g., lorazepam, clonazepam, oxazepam),… Read More »

Bipolar Depression: Treatment Acute Pharmacotherapy

Lithium For many years, lithium was considered to be the standard treatment for bipolar depression. Improvement rates of 80% have been reported in nine placebo-controlled studies, conducted mostly in the 1970s. Response rates for lithium were equivalent to those for tricyclic antidepressants (tricyclic antidepressants). A recent study of outpatients with bipolar depression compared the efficacy… Read More »

Current Therapies for Insomnia

Most individuals who suffer from insomnia either self-treat with nonprescription sleep aids (e.g., antihistamines, herbal remedies), use alcohol as a sedative, or take no drug therapy at all. For those who do seek professional help (approximately one-third of insomniacs), the majority receive physician-prescribed benzodiazepine or non-benzodiazepine sedative hypnotics to treat their insomnia. Such hypnotic agents… Read More »

Sedating Antidepressants

Given the high comorbidity of insomnia and depression and / or anxiety, sedating antidepressants have considerable relevance for treating insomnia. (Note: Sedating antidepressants can effectively treat both depressive and anxious symptoms.) The sleep-promoting properties of the sedating antidepressants, as well as their lack of abuse potential or propensity to induce tolerance, make these agents viable… Read More »

Benzodiazepine Hypnotics

Benzodiazepine hypnotics can be categorized into three groups based on their pharmacokinetic characteristics: short-acting, intermediate-acting, and long-acting. Short-acting benzodiazepines such as triazolam (Pfizer’s Halcion, generics) generally have elimination half-lives of 6 hours or less; intermediate-acting benzodiazepines such as temazepam (Mallinckrodf s Restoril, generics), oxazepam (Wyeth’s Serax / Serepax, Boehringer-Ingelheim’s Adumbran, generics), and lormetazepam (Wyeth’s Loramet,… Read More »