Tag Archives: Bromocriptine

Pharmacological Treatment of Dementia

General guidelines for psychotropic medication use in frail elderly patients are applicable. Systematic evidence to support the effectiveness of particular psychotropic drugs in dementia patients is limited. Therefore, choice of drug class may be based on clinical evidence, and choice of agent is often based on the side-effect profile and on the characteristics of a… Read More »

Adjunctive Pharmacotherapy and Related Issues

Managing antipsychotic side effects. Antipsychotic drugs produce problematic side effects in many individuals (see Table Side Effects of Typical Antipsychotic Drugs). A major category of side effects results from neurotransmitter dysregulation of the extra-pyramidal motor system. It is thought that these side effects are the result of an imbalance of dopaminergic and acetylcholinergic activity in… Read More »

Common Side Effects: Monitoring and Management Recommendations

Extrapyramidal Side Effects Antipsychotic-induced EPS may occur acutely or after long-term treatment. First-generation antipsychotics, in particular high-potency neuroleptics, are more likely than second-generation antipsychotics to cause EPS when the drugs are used at usual therapeutic doses. However, as can be noted in Table Selected side effects of commonly used antipsychotic medications, considerable variation in the… Read More »

Schizophrenia: Other Pharmacological Treatments

Because antipsychotic medications often fail to resolve the full range of schizophrenic psychopathology and other common symptoms (e.g., anxiety, depression, mood instability, motor unrest), adjunctive treatments are commonly tried. Adjunctive pharmacological treatments in patients with schizophrenia have been the subject of numerous reviews (). In addition, some psychotropic medications other than antipsychotics have been used… Read More »

Delirium: Etiology

Delirium has a wide variety of etiologies, which may occur alone or in combination (). These include primary cerebral disorders, systemic disturbances that affect cerebral function, drug and toxin exposure (including intoxication and withdrawal), and a range of factors that can contribute to delirium but have an uncertain role as etiological factors by themselves (psychological… Read More »

Special Considerations for Treatment of Restless Legs Syndrome

Side Effects of Dopaminergic Treatments Dopaminergic agents (dopamine agonists and levodopa) are usually considered first-line therapy in restless legs syndrome. Common side effects of dopamine agonists include nausea, dizziness, orthostatic hypotension, and headache (). A very slow dose titration will help minimize side effects. Hallucinations are another common side effects of dopaminergic therapy in Parkinson’s… Read More »

OCD treatment: Augmentation strategy

SRIs This augmentation strategy consists of the combination of two serotoninergic drugs, usually clomipramine or SSRIs, depending on which was the initial agent. Sertraline and citalopram represent first choice SSRIs augmentation molecules to clomipramine, due to the fact that they have a minor inhibitor effect on cit P-450. The efficacy of clomipramine as augmentation agent… Read More »

Pharmacological Treatment Of Restless Legs Syndrome

Dopaminergic Agents in the Treatment Of Restless Legs Syndrome Levodopa was the first dopaminergic agent found effective in restless legs syndrome and has since shown evidence of efficacy in controlled trials. Benes et al. found improved quality of sleep, reduced sleep latency, and better quality of life with levodopa / benserazide given in a single… Read More »

Management of Periodic Limb Movement Disorder

Periodic limb movements in sleep represent a habitual motor accompaniment of restless legs syndrome, found in over 80% of the cases on polysomnography. The recent finding that genes associated with restless legs syndrome are highly associated with periodic limb movements in sleep also indicates the close, but poorly understood relationship between the two. Periodic limb… Read More »

Management of Sleep-Related Bruxism

Sleep-related bruxism is an oral activity characterized by grinding or clenching of the teeth during sleep, usually associated with sleep arousals. Sleep-related bruxism is due to contraction of the jaw muscles and may occur in two forms, isolated sustained tonic contractions, or as series of repetitive phasic muscle contractions called rhythmic masticatory muscle activity. Sleep-related… Read More »