Tag Archives: Calcium channel blockers

Term “Psychotropic Drugs”

Question. I’m a medical student who is trying to find out exactly what the term “psychotropic drugs” includes. Does it cover marijuana and other street drugs, or is it only for mood-altering drugs (developed by pharmaceutical companies) without euphoric effects? What is the true definition? Answer. Good question, but a bit like trying to nail… Read More »

Pharmacological Treatment of Pain

While medications are often prescribed for all types of chronic pain, research has consistently shown that several classes have proven efficacy for the treatment of neuropathic pain. Ideally, pharmacotherapy of pain would be specifically selected on the basis of considerations of etiology (e.g., ischemic, neuropathic), pathophysiology (e.g., demyelination, central pain), and anatomy (e.g., C fibers,… Read More »

Selected Chronic Pain Conditions

Postherpetic Neuralgia Postherpetic neuralgia is defined as pain persisting or recurring at the site of shingles at least 3 months after the onset of the acute varicella zoster viral rash. Postherpetic neuralgia occurs in about 10% of patients with acute herpes zoster. More than half of patients over 65 years of age with shingles develop… Read More »

Preventive Treatment for Migraine

Migraine is a common episodic headache disorder characterized by attacks that consist of various combinations of headache and neurologie, gastrointestinal, and autonomie symptoms. It has a one-year prevalence of approximately 18% in women, 6% in men, and 4% in children. The second edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-2) subclassifies migraine into migraine… Read More »

Specific Migraine-Preventive Agents: Calcium-Channel Antagonists

Calcium, in combination with a calcium-binding protein such as calmodulin or troponin, regulates many functions, including muscle contraction, neurotransmitter and hormone release, and enzyme activity. Its extracellular concentration is high; its intracellular free concentration is 10,000-fold smaller. The concentration gradient is established by membrane pumps and the intracellular sequestering of free calcium. When stimulated, the… Read More »

Sleep-Related Leg Cramps

Demographics Age of Onset Sleep-related leg cramps affect all age groups, but they tend to occur more in middle-aged and older populations. In one study, the mean age of onset of cramps was 60 years; for both males and females (). Leung et al. found that no sleep-related leg cramps were reported in children younger… Read More »

The drugs used for blood pressure control and headache prevention

The following medications are used for blood pressure control and headache prevention. Match each with it mechanism of action. Use each answer once, more than once, or not at all. A. Lisinopril (Prinivil, Zestril) B. Candesartan (Atacand) C. Atenolol (Tenormin) D. Verapamil (Calan) E. Clonidine (Catapres) 1. a2 Agonists 2. Angiotensin II receptor blocker 3.… Read More »

Treatment of Psychotic Depression

Substantial evidence supports the theory that psychotic depression represents a distinct type of major depression. Statistically significant differences between psychotic and nonpsychotic major depression have been noted along many axes, including presenting features, biology, familial transmission, course of illness, and response to treatment. Many centers have reported specific abnormalities on measures of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity… Read More »

Use of Mood Stabilizers in Treating Bipolar Disorder

The goal of treatment with mood stabilizers is to keep your mood within a normal range. While experts often use the term mood to refer to treatments for bipolar disorder, the term mood stabilizer is not a precisely defined scientific term. There is general agreement among experts that lithium (e.g., Eskalith and Lithobid), valproate (Depakote),… Read More »

Chronic Opioid Use in Patients with Chronic Non-Cancer Pain

Two interesting studies from Canada noted important facts, which would most likely be replicated if done in the United States. A report in 2001 by Moulin et al. found that 340 Canadian pain patients with an average pain intensity of 6.3 (on a 1-10 scale) were taking medication for pain. Eighty percent complained of moderate… Read More »