Tag Archives: Carbidopa

Restless Legs Syndrome and Periodic Limb Movements

Patients with restless legs syndrome describe subjective discomfort of the lower extremities that worsens at night. Patients can have an irresistible need to move their legs in bed or during prolonged periods of sedentary activity, such as airplane flights. This condition was first described by Ekblom in 1945. As a result of these distressing symptoms,… Read More »

Minor Depression

Etiology and Pathophysiology Minor depression is only a proposed diagnosis in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, and there are no International Classification of Diseases codes to categorize it. The proposed diagnostic category for minor depression in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition describes a depressive disorder that… Read More »

Pharmacological Treatment Of Restless Legs Syndrome

Dopaminergic Agents in the Treatment Of Restless Legs Syndrome Levodopa was the first dopaminergic agent found effective in restless legs syndrome and has since shown evidence of efficacy in controlled trials. Benes et al. found improved quality of sleep, reduced sleep latency, and better quality of life with levodopa / benserazide given in a single… Read More »

Management of Periodic Limb Movement Disorder

Periodic limb movements in sleep represent a habitual motor accompaniment of restless legs syndrome, found in over 80% of the cases on polysomnography. The recent finding that genes associated with restless legs syndrome are highly associated with periodic limb movements in sleep also indicates the close, but poorly understood relationship between the two. Periodic limb… Read More »

Antiparkinson Drugs

Pharmacologic Profile General Use Used in the treatment of parkinsonism of various causes: degenerative, toxic, infective, neoplastic, or drug-induced. General Action and Information Drugs used in the treatment of the parkinsonian syndrome and other dyskinesias are aimed at restoring the natural balance of two major neurotransmitters in the CNS: acetylcholine and dopamine. The imbalance is… Read More »

Cost Analysis of DBS, CSIA and CDLCI in Advanced Parkinson’s Disease: The SCOPE Study

For physicians in general and for neurologists in special, it becomes quite challenging to achieve an antiparkinsonian medication regimen that keeps the patient mobile while at the same time does not create side effects that outweigh the benefits of treatment, impacting patient’s quality of life. In these advanced Parkinson’s disease patients, refractory to pharmacological treatment,… Read More »

Modelling Interventions For Advanced Parkinson’s Disease

Parkinson’s disease is a complex illness, encompassing many different symptoms and costs, which makes undertaking an economic evaluation challenging. Numerous cost-effectiveness analyses have been published over the last 10-15 years, with significantly different approaches used to represent the progression of the disease, the effect of treatment upon symptoms and other outcomes, and the duration of… Read More »

Treatment Of Specific Parasomnias

Disorders of Arousal The disorders of arousal constitute a continuum of overlapping disorders, all of which respond to the same general therapeutic manipulations. The disorders of arousal are most generally treated with environmental protection of the patient and family reassurance, particularly in children since the parasomnia most often decreases and disappears as the individual enters… Read More »

Parasomnias: Side Effects Of Treatment

In addition to safety measures, treatment of parasomnias includes pharmacotherapeutic agents and nonpharmacotherapy options as well as behavior modification and hypnosis. Non-pharmacotherapy options do not have significant or well-known adverse effects. The adverse effects of pharmacotherapeutic agents are discussed here. 1. Medications that are used for sleep-stage manipulation • Medications that suppress slow-wave sleep stages.… Read More »