Tag Archives: Chlordiazepoxide

Treatment of Anxiety in the Medically Ill

Psychotherapy An overemphasis on psychopharmacology in the care of medically ill patients may result in overlooking the value of psychotherapy. The first step in the treatment of anxiety is to spend time listening to and talking with the patient. Just as in psychotherapy with any patient, empathic listening is a powerful tool to relieve distress.… Read More »

Information about Alzheimer’s Disease for Patients and Families

Alzheimer’s disease is the most common and well-known form of degenerative dementia. By definition, dementia is a syndrome, a cluster of symptoms, of impaired memory and cognition. Dementia is a cognitive disorder that impairs an individual’s memory and ability for reasoning, awareness, and judgment. Cognitive impairment in Alzheimer’s disease may involve disturbance of language (aphasia),… Read More »

Overview of New Anxiolytics

Although the benzodiazepines have been the treatment of choice for anxiety disorders for many years, unfavorable aspects to their side-effect profile have initiated efforts to develop new-generation antianxiety agents. Over the past decade, scientists have been searching for compounds that retain the robust anxiolytic efficacy of benzodiazepines, but lack a number of unwanted properties, including… Read More »

Minor Depression

Etiology and Pathophysiology Minor depression is only a proposed diagnosis in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, and there are no International Classification of Diseases codes to categorize it. The proposed diagnostic category for minor depression in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition describes a depressive disorder that… Read More »

Treatment for GAD

Management Most patients with generalized anxiety disorder present to, and are managed by, primary physicians, although some with more severe symptoms and comorbid disorders are referred to psychiatrists or other mental health professionals. Psychological and pharmacological treatments are both effective, but residual symptoms and stress-related vulnerability commonly persist. Most patients should receive some form of… Read More »

Types of Substances

Because there is great variation among methods of use, tolerance levels, withdrawal symptoms, and intervention, each category will be discussed separately. Substances that are prone to abuse generally fall into six categories: (1) sedatives and central nervous system (CNS) depressants, (2) opioid narcotics, (3) stimulants, (4) psychedelics or hallucinogens, (5) marijuana and hashish, and (6)… Read More »

1960s-1970s: The Development of Specific Psychopharmacological Agents

Anxiety and Depression as Overlapping Constructs Anxiety and depression were not as stringently differentiated in the era prior to DSM-III, when it was widely accepted that many patients presented for treatment with symptoms of both disorders. For example, Roth and his colleagues () noted that “a wide range of workers drawn from many schools of… Read More »

Treatment of Anxiety Disorders in the Elderly

Currently, the treatment of anxiety disorders in the elderly is primarily pharmacotherapeutic (1991). However, although controlled studies are lacking, some evidence indicates that the augmentation of medication with psychotherapeutic interventions may result in greater improvement than with the use of either alone (). In addition, psychotherapy can provide a useful alternative to pharmacotherapy for those… Read More »

Pharmacodynamic Effects of Anxiolytics

The evolution of the currently available anxiolytics is summarized in Figure Evolution of anxiolytic treatment.   Figure Evolution of anxiolytic treatment Benzodiazepines Specific benzodiazepine receptors were first identified in 1977 and have now been visualized in humans using autoradiographic, SPECT and PET techniques. They have been shown to be present solely in the grey matter… Read More »

Antianxiety Drugs

Pharmacologic Profile General Use Antianxiety agents are used in the management of various forms of anxiety, including generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Some agents are more suitable for intermittent or short-term use (benzodiazepines) while others are more useful long-term (buspirone, doxepin, fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline, venlafaxine). General Action and Information Most agents cause generalized CNS depression. Benzodiazepines… Read More »