Tag Archives: Cipro


Description of Medical Condition Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder of early childhood characterized by severe impairment in: • Effective social skills • Absent or impaired language development • Repetitive and/or stereotyped activities and interests, especially inanimate objects System(s) affected: Nervous Genetics: High concordance in monozygotic twins; increased prevalence in siblings Incidence/Prevalence in USA: About… Read More »

Oral Appliance Treatment of Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders

Dental devices represent a common alternative for patients with sleep-related breathing disorders (sleep-related breathing disorder), who are unsuitable candidates for treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (continuous positive airway pressure). These intraoral devices, commonly known as oral appliances, aim at relieving upper airway obstruction and snoring by modifying the position of the mandible, tongue, and… Read More »

Bacterial Meningitis: Antimicrobial Therapy

The initial management of the patient with suspected acute bacterial meningitis is empiric antimicrobial and adjunctive therapy begun immediately after obtaining blood for bacterial culture. Respiratory isolation for the first 24 hours of antimicrobial therapy is recommended only for patients with suspected meningococcal meningitis. Respiratory isolation is not required for patients with meningitis due to… Read More »

Refractory And Chronic Depression

The Role of Axis II Disorders in Assessment and Treatment Despite the availability of a wide variety of antidepressant therapies, a substantial number of depressed patients have a chronic course of illness or have illness that is refractory to treatment (). One approach to identify possible underlying causes of chronicity and treatment resistance in patients… Read More »

How Can Personality Alter Antidepressant Effects?

Antidepressant treatments are generally more effective for people with moderately severe and circumscribed episodes of depression (). In many ways, depression chronicity and antidepressant responsiveness are strongly correlated with various psychosocial factors (). For example, patients with good social supports tend to respond better to treatment (), as do patients who are compliant with treatment… Read More »

Treatment of the epilepsy patient with hepatic disease

The liver is the principal organ of drug metabolism. Some drugs are absorbed from the gut, delivered to the liver and undergo first-pass metabolism prior to reaching the systemic circulation. Metabolism of these drugs is significantly affected by hepatic vascular supply; if hepatic blood flow is reduced, first-pass metabolism is decreased and more drug reaches… Read More »

Treatment for Specific Phobia

Management The most important ingredient in the treatment of phobias is motivation. Highly motivated individuals quickly overcome even severe phobias, whereas unmotivated persons rarely loose them. For instance, a well-known scientist overcame his fear of flying because he wanted to attend international meetings. He also overcame his fear of tunnels because the drive from home… Read More »

Dissociative Disorders: Definitions

Dissociation is an experience, or a discernible process, in which consciousness is disrupted so that what might usually seem to be consistent, continuous, connected, and integrated is compartmentalized into autonomous groups of feelings, memories, and perceptions that may be remembered in a dreamlike, unreal, or vague state or that are repressed and out of conscious… Read More »

Assessment for Unipolar Depression

Depression was first described by the ancient Greeks, who referred to melancholia as “black bile,” and references to it have appeared in the Bible and in medical literature since ancient days. Assessing major depression or dysthymia is much more complex than assessing bipolar disorders. Because depression may be caused by physical illness or substance abuse,… Read More »