Tag Archives: Citalopram

Pharmacological Treatment of Dementia

General guidelines for psychotropic medication use in frail elderly patients are applicable. Systematic evidence to support the effectiveness of particular psychotropic drugs in dementia patients is limited. Therefore, choice of drug class may be based on clinical evidence, and choice of agent is often based on the side-effect profile and on the characteristics of a… Read More »

Alzheimer’s Disease Therapies

Current Therapies for Alzheimer’s Disease Because there is currently no cure for Alzheimer’s disease (), the primary goal of treatment remains the relief of cognitive, functional, and behavioral symptoms associated with the disease. Hence, current therapies aim to improve the quality of life for both Alzheimer’s disease patients and the caregivers who often must cope… Read More »

Alzheimer’s Therapy: Antidepressants

Overview. Major depression affects approximately 15% of Alzheimer’s disease patients. By comparison, 5-12% of the general population aged 15 years or older in the major pharmaceutical markets experience at least one episode of major depression per year. Because depression itself may lead to declines in cognition and function, treatment of depression in Alzheimer’s disease patients… Read More »

Bipolar Depression: Antidepressants

Tricyclic Antidepressants Literature is sparse on controlled studies of tricyclic antidepressants for bipolar depression. Tricyclic antidepressants are more effective in the treatment of unipolar depression than in bipolar depression. The risk of switching patients from bipolar depression to mania and of shortening cycle lengths makes tricyclic antidepressants unattractive choices for the treatment of bipolar depression.… Read More »

Treatment of Social Anxiety Disorder

Current recommended treatment options for social anxiety disorder include pharmacotherapy and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). Although several randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have failed to show efficacy for beta-adrenoceptor antagonists in generalised social anxiety disorder (SAD), it has been suggested that these agents may be useful in non-generalised social anxiety disorder (SAD), patients with performance anxiety… Read More »

Treatment of Anxiety in the Medically Ill

Psychotherapy An overemphasis on psychopharmacology in the care of medically ill patients may result in overlooking the value of psychotherapy. The first step in the treatment of anxiety is to spend time listening to and talking with the patient. Just as in psychotherapy with any patient, empathic listening is a powerful tool to relieve distress.… Read More »

Pharmacologic Treatment in Children and Adolescents for OCD

Clomipramine (Anafranil) Clomipramine (Anafranil), a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) and potent serotonin re-uptake inhibitor, was used in the first controlled pharmacologic treatment trial in children and adolescents for OCD. Nineteen pediatric patients (mean age, 14.5 ± 2.3 years) were studied in a 12-week double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study (5 weeks of active medication) (). Doses of clomipramine… Read More »

Pharmacological Treatment of Pain

While medications are often prescribed for all types of chronic pain, research has consistently shown that several classes have proven efficacy for the treatment of neuropathic pain. Ideally, pharmacotherapy of pain would be specifically selected on the basis of considerations of etiology (e.g., ischemic, neuropathic), pathophysiology (e.g., demyelination, central pain), and anatomy (e.g., C fibers,… Read More »

Minor Depression

Etiology and Pathophysiology Minor depression is only a proposed diagnosis in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, and there are no International Classification of Diseases codes to categorize it. The proposed diagnostic category for minor depression in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition describes a depressive disorder that… Read More »

Minor Depression: Bupropion

Dopaminergic/Noradrenergic Agents Bupropion (GSK’s Wellbutrin/Wellbutrin XR) acts on the noradren-ergic and dopaminergic system by inhibiting reuptake of norepinephrine and dopamine. Because bupropion does not affect the serotonergic system, this drug has become a common alternative or adjunct therapy for patients unable to bear the serotonergic side effects associated with serotonin reuptake inhibition (e.g., sedation, weight… Read More »