Tag Archives: Codeine

Restless Legs Syndrome and Periodic Limb Movements

Patients with restless legs syndrome describe subjective discomfort of the lower extremities that worsens at night. Patients can have an irresistible need to move their legs in bed or during prolonged periods of sedentary activity, such as airplane flights. This condition was first described by Ekblom in 1945. As a result of these distressing symptoms,… Read More »

Pharmacological Treatment of Pain

While medications are often prescribed for all types of chronic pain, research has consistently shown that several classes have proven efficacy for the treatment of neuropathic pain. Ideally, pharmacotherapy of pain would be specifically selected on the basis of considerations of etiology (e.g., ischemic, neuropathic), pathophysiology (e.g., demyelination, central pain), and anatomy (e.g., C fibers,… Read More »

Side Effects of Fluoxetine (Prozac)

Fluoxetine is well tolerated in most patients. Side effects that occurred significantly more with fluoxetine treatment than with placebo treatment were vasodilatation, dry mouth, nausea, decreased libido, somnolence, tremor, yawning, and sweating. There were relatively few discontinuations because of adverse events (approximately 10%) during the study by Tollefson et al. (1994). Applicable drugs: Prozac (fluoxetine)… Read More »

Delirium: Neuropathogenesis

Even though delirium has many different etiologies, its constellation of symptoms is largely stereotyped, with some considered core symptoms. Somehow, this diversity of physiological perturbations translates into a common clinical expression that may represent dysfunction ofcertain neural circuits (as well as neurotransmitters) —  that is, a final common neural pathway. The involvement of certain specific… Read More »

Back Pain — Medical Management

Low back pain currently accounts for more than half of all musculoskeletal disability; whilst work loss due to back pain in the UK is approximately 52 million days per year. Disability due to low back pain has reached epidemic proportions although there is no evidence for an increase in pathology. The cost of treating back… Read More »

Axis I Comorbidities

Depression is frequently comorbid with other psychiatric disorders (). Among the Axis I disorders, anxiety disorders (panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder and social anxiety disorder) and eating disorders are most commonly associated with major depressive disorder. In some conditions, such as schizophrenia, it is very difficult to separate symptoms… Read More »

Opioids In Chronic Pain

The use of opioids in pain of non-malignant origin is controversial and depends on a proper understanding of the nature of chronic pain, and the strategy of its management. Patients with chronic pain who take opioids must understand the rationale for the use and be prepared to be an active partner in the management of… Read More »


The cannabinoids are derived from the resin of the plant Cannabis sativa. The only known active constituent is 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (59-THC). Other cannabinoids are an oral synthetic nitrogen analogue of THC and intramuscular levonantradol. There are claims for their use in nausea and vomiting, appetite stimulation in HIV-infected patients, movement disorders and glaucoma. There have also… Read More »

Opioid Narcotics

Opium poppies can be seen in Greek drawings and on coins that antedate written Greek literature by at least one thousand years. Homer and Hesiod wrote of the medicinal effects of poppies that symbolized sleep, even death. The standard agent for euthanasia and suicide, which was given to Socrates, was a mixture of hemlock and… Read More »

Syndol Caplets

Paracetamol 450mg Codeine Phosphate 10mg Doxylamine Succinate 5mg Caffeine 30mg What Are These Tablets Used For? Syndol is used for the short term treatment of acute moderate pain which is not relieved by paracetamol, ibuprofen and aspirin alone such as headache, including muscle contraction or tension headache, migraine, neuralgia, period pain, toothache and other dental… Read More »