Tag Archives: Diazepam

Phenobarbital: 15 mg; 30mg ; 60mg; 100mg. Uses and Administration

Phenobarbital is a barbiturate that may be used as an antiepileptic to control partial and generalised tonic-clonic seizures. It is also used as part of the emergency management of acute seizures including status epilepticus. The dose should be adjusted to the needs of the individual patient to achieve adequate control of seizures; this usually requires… Read More »

Lamotrigine: 25mg, 50mg, 100mg, 150mg, 200mg, 250mg. Uses and Administration

Lamotrigine, a phenyltriazine compound, is an antiepileptic used mainly for monotherapy or adjunctive treatment of partial seizures and primary and secondarily generalised tonic-clonic seizures. It may be used for seizures associated with the Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and for the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder. The doses given below for the use of lamotrigine in epilepsy are… Read More »

Gabapentin: 100mg, 300mg, 400mg, 600mg, 800mg. Uses and Administration

Gabapentin is an antiepileptic used as monotherapy or adjunctive therapy in the treatment of partial seizures with or without secondary generalisation. It is not generally considered effective for absence seizures. Although gabapentin is an analogue of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), it is neither a GABA agonist nor antagonist and its mechanism of action is unknown. Gabapentin… Read More »

Benzodiazepine Hypnotics

Benzodiazepine hypnotics can be categorized into three groups based on their pharmacokinetic characteristics: short-acting, intermediate-acting, and long-acting. Short-acting benzodiazepines such as triazolam (Pfizer’s Halcion, generics) generally have elimination half-lives of 6 hours or less; intermediate-acting benzodiazepines such as temazepam (Mallinckrodf s Restoril, generics), oxazepam (Wyeth’s Serax / Serepax, Boehringer-Ingelheim’s Adumbran, generics), and lormetazepam (Wyeth’s Loramet,… Read More »

Treatment of Anxiety in the Medically Ill

Psychotherapy An overemphasis on psychopharmacology in the care of medically ill patients may result in overlooking the value of psychotherapy. The first step in the treatment of anxiety is to spend time listening to and talking with the patient. Just as in psychotherapy with any patient, empathic listening is a powerful tool to relieve distress.… Read More »

Possible Clinical Effects of Neurosteroids

The precise role of neurosteroids in cognition as well as neurological and psychiatric disorders is currently under investigation. Although data from human studies are sparse, results obtained from in vitro and in vivo experiments show promising leads for future clinical applications of neurosteroids. Memory In recent years, memory-enhancing properties have been attributed to pregnenolone and… Read More »

Information about Alzheimer’s Disease for Patients and Families

Alzheimer’s disease is the most common and well-known form of degenerative dementia. By definition, dementia is a syndrome, a cluster of symptoms, of impaired memory and cognition. Dementia is a cognitive disorder that impairs an individual’s memory and ability for reasoning, awareness, and judgment. Cognitive impairment in Alzheimer’s disease may involve disturbance of language (aphasia),… Read More »

Minor Depression: Escitalopram, Paroxetine, Sertraline, and Fluoxetine

Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors The seven available agents in the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor class are citalopram (Lund-beck’s Cipramil, Forest Laboratories’ Celexa, generics) and its single enan-tiomer, escitalopram (Lundbeck’s Cipralex, Forest’s Lexapro); paroxetine (GSK’s Paxil/Seroxat, Novartis’s Frosinor, generics); the controlled-release version of paroxetine (GSK’s Paxil CR); sertraline (Pfizer’s Zoloft); fluoxetine (Eli Lilly’s Prozac, generics); and… Read More »

Delirium (Acute Confusional State)

Description of Medical Condition Delirium is a neurologic complication of illness and/or medication use that is especially common in older patients. The key diagnostic features are an acute change in mental status that fluctuates, abnormal attention, and either disorganized thinking or altered level of consciousness. Delirium is a medical emergency requiring immediate evaluation in order… Read More »

Treatment Of The Child Or Adolescent With Newly Diagnosed Epilepsy

Paediatric epilepsy is amazingly diverse. In some children, basic diagnosis, seizure classification and treatment are straightforward. Other patients have difficult-to-diagnose seizures, complicated seizure classification and a variable response to treatment. Some seizures are subclinical, others are barely noticeable, and occasionally they are life threatening. Many children with epilepsy have no associated disabilities, but all children… Read More »