Tag Archives: Diltiazem

Pharmacological Treatment of Pain

While medications are often prescribed for all types of chronic pain, research has consistently shown that several classes have proven efficacy for the treatment of neuropathic pain. Ideally, pharmacotherapy of pain would be specifically selected on the basis of considerations of etiology (e.g., ischemic, neuropathic), pathophysiology (e.g., demyelination, central pain), and anatomy (e.g., C fibers,… Read More »

Specific Migraine-Preventive Agents: Calcium-Channel Antagonists

Calcium, in combination with a calcium-binding protein such as calmodulin or troponin, regulates many functions, including muscle contraction, neurotransmitter and hormone release, and enzyme activity. Its extracellular concentration is high; its intracellular free concentration is 10,000-fold smaller. The concentration gradient is established by membrane pumps and the intracellular sequestering of free calcium. When stimulated, the… Read More »


Migraine is a primary headache. Diagnosis can be made from the history. However, investigation may be required to exclude headache of other aetiology. Pathophysiology There are vascular and neural hypotheses. The ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve supplies painful structures within the head. Stimulation of the trigeminal ganglion releases a peptide from trigeminal neurones which… Read More »

Management of Sleep-Related Leg Cramps

Sleep-related leg cramps consist of a painful sensation in the leg or foot associated with a strong muscle contraction. The painful muscle contractions occur during sleep, and the pain is usually relieved by forceful stretching of the affected muscles. Sleep-related leg cramps represent a common complaint in the general population at all ages, but especially… Read More »

Specific Conditions

Diabetes Tike dementia, non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus is highly prevalent in elderly people. A number of studies have suggested that diabetes affects cognition, but the relationship with dementia has been uncertain. Increasingly it appears that diabetes is a risk factor, particularly for vascular dementia but also for Alzheimer’s disease. Interestingly, one study examining diabetes and… Read More »

Side Effects of Mood Stabilizers and Atypical Antipsychotics

This post provides an overview of developmental issues related to side effects, and then reviews the most common adverse events and concerns related to mood stabilizers and atypical antipsychotics. There are clear developmental differences in adverse event expression or side effects risks when mood stabilizers and antipsychotics are used in children and adolescents. All the… Read More »