Tag Archives: Diphenhydramine

Pharmacological Treatment of Dementia

General guidelines for psychotropic medication use in frail elderly patients are applicable. Systematic evidence to support the effectiveness of particular psychotropic drugs in dementia patients is limited. Therefore, choice of drug class may be based on clinical evidence, and choice of agent is often based on the side-effect profile and on the characteristics of a… Read More »

Treatment of Insomnia

Several classes of medications are used in the treatment of insomnia. They include the benzodiazepines, non-benzodiazepine hypnotics, antidepressants, and over-the-counter medications. There are six benzodiazepines that are specifically marketed as hypnotics in the United States or in Canada: flurazepam, temazepam, triazolam, estazolam, quazepam, and (in Canada only) nitrazepam. Several other benzodiazepines (e.g., lorazepam, clonazepam, oxazepam),… Read More »

How does ADHD affect sleep?

Women with ADHD often complain about having difficulty “shutting off” their brains at night to go to sleep. They report that their thoughts jump around from one concern, thought, or worry to the next, resulting in significant difficulty with falling asleep (initiation insomnia). They report that once they finally fall asleep, their sleep is very… Read More »

Treatment of Anxiety in the Medically Ill

Psychotherapy An overemphasis on psychopharmacology in the care of medically ill patients may result in overlooking the value of psychotherapy. The first step in the treatment of anxiety is to spend time listening to and talking with the patient. Just as in psychotherapy with any patient, empathic listening is a powerful tool to relieve distress.… Read More »

Term “Psychotropic Drugs”

Question. I’m a medical student who is trying to find out exactly what the term “psychotropic drugs” includes. Does it cover marijuana and other street drugs, or is it only for mood-altering drugs (developed by pharmaceutical companies) without euphoric effects? What is the true definition? Answer. Good question, but a bit like trying to nail… Read More »

Delirium (Acute Confusional State)

Description of Medical Condition Delirium is a neurologic complication of illness and/or medication use that is especially common in older patients. The key diagnostic features are an acute change in mental status that fluctuates, abnormal attention, and either disorganized thinking or altered level of consciousness. Delirium is a medical emergency requiring immediate evaluation in order… Read More »

Common Side Effects: Monitoring and Management Recommendations

Extrapyramidal Side Effects Antipsychotic-induced EPS may occur acutely or after long-term treatment. First-generation antipsychotics, in particular high-potency neuroleptics, are more likely than second-generation antipsychotics to cause EPS when the drugs are used at usual therapeutic doses. However, as can be noted in Table Selected side effects of commonly used antipsychotic medications, considerable variation in the… Read More »

Nonprescription Pharmacotherapies: Alcohol, Over-the-Counter, and Complementary and Alternative Medicines

A large percentage of individuals with insomnia self-medicate with alcohol, over-the-counter (OTC) antihistamines, or complementary and alternative preparations. In the United States, the formulation and manufacture of OTC products are regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Other products not requiring a prescription, such as dietary supplements, are unregulated. The National Center for… Read More »

Antipsychotic Drugs Haloperidol Decanoate and Fluphenazine Decanoate

Information About Antipsychotic Drugs Haloperidol Decanoate (Haldol Decanoate) and Fluphenazine Decanoate (Prolixin Decanoate) for Patients and Families Haloperidol decanoate (Haldol Decanoate Injection) and fluphenazine decanoate (Prolixin Decanoate Injection) are long-acting injections of the antipsychotics haloperidol (Haldol) and fluphenazine (Prolixin). In the decanoate formulation, the antipsychotics are suspended in sterile sesame oil to extend the duration… Read More »

Antipsychotic Drug Ziprasidone (Geodon)

Information About Antipsychotic Drug Ziprasidone (Geodon) for Patients and Families Ziprasidone (Geodon) is an antipsychotic drug used in the treatment of psychotic disorders, including schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder and psychotic depression, and acute mania in bipolar disorder. Ziprasidone is a second-generation antipsychotic, a new class of medicines with actions different from those of the older, first-generation… Read More »