Tag Archives: Disulfiram

Treatment for Anxiety Disorders in the Medically Ill

Treatment of anxiety disorders in the medically ill depends upon the relationship between anxiety symptoms and physical disease. Some patients have persisting symptoms or exacerbations of anxiety disorders that existed before the onset of physical disease. In that case, treatment should be similar to that given to patients without comorbid illness. Other patients, perhaps the… Read More »

Delirium: Etiology

Delirium has a wide variety of etiologies, which may occur alone or in combination (). These include primary cerebral disorders, systemic disturbances that affect cerebral function, drug and toxin exposure (including intoxication and withdrawal), and a range of factors that can contribute to delirium but have an uncertain role as etiological factors by themselves (psychological… Read More »

Substance-Related Disorders: Epidemiology

Statistics on the prevalence of substance abuse are hard to obtain and probably underestimate the problem, as people deny, or are reluctant to discuss, the extent of their use. It is estimated that at least 25 percent of the U.S. population engages in some type of addictive behavior. Most alarming has been the rise in… Read More »

Types of Substances

Because there is great variation among methods of use, tolerance levels, withdrawal symptoms, and intervention, each category will be discussed separately. Substances that are prone to abuse generally fall into six categories: (1) sedatives and central nervous system (CNS) depressants, (2) opioid narcotics, (3) stimulants, (4) psychedelics or hallucinogens, (5) marijuana and hashish, and (6)… Read More »

Substance-Related Disorders: Intervention

The cocaine and crack epidemic of the 1980s challenged traditional alcohol and drug treatment programs, because it resulted in a significant number of people being addicted not only to cocaine or crack but also to alcohol. It pointed out the failure of a system that separates alcoholism and chemical dependency, and it increased the importance… Read More »

Pharmacotherapy of Alcohol Dependence

Disulfiram The most commonly used pharmacological adjunct for the treatment of alcohol dependence and abuse is disulfiram, or Antabuse. Disulfiram interferes with normal metabolism of alcohol, which results in an accumulation of acetaldhyde, and hence drinking following ingestion of disulfiram results in an intense physiologic reaction, characterized by flushing, rapid or irregular heartbeat, dizziness, nausea,… Read More »

Principles of management

The management of major depressive disorder (major depressive disorder) involves establishing a correct diagnosis and applying evidence based and goal directed principles of treatment. These treatment principles include recognizing and treating any coexisting medical conditions, building a therapeutic alliance with patients and choosing an appropriate treatment, as well as monitoring and maintaining response (Table Nine… Read More »