Tag Archives: Fentanyl

Pharmacological Treatment of Pain

While medications are often prescribed for all types of chronic pain, research has consistently shown that several classes have proven efficacy for the treatment of neuropathic pain. Ideally, pharmacotherapy of pain would be specifically selected on the basis of considerations of etiology (e.g., ischemic, neuropathic), pathophysiology (e.g., demyelination, central pain), and anatomy (e.g., C fibers,… Read More »

Delirium: Neuropathogenesis

Even though delirium has many different etiologies, its constellation of symptoms is largely stereotyped, with some considered core symptoms. Somehow, this diversity of physiological perturbations translates into a common clinical expression that may represent dysfunction ofcertain neural circuits (as well as neurotransmitters) —  that is, a final common neural pathway. The involvement of certain specific… Read More »

Delirium: Prevention Strategies

Nonpharmacological and pharmacological interventions are available to prevent delirium. Preoperative patient education or preparation was helpful in reducing delirium symptom rates. However, studies of caregiver education and environmental or risk factor interventions have had mixed results, with two not finding any significant effect on delirium rate. In contrast, Inouye et al. studied the effect on… Read More »

Delirium: Pharmacological Treatment

Current delirium pharmacotherapies have evolved from use in the treatment of mainstream psychiatric disorders; hence, psychiatrists are well acquainted with the practicalities of their use. Medications are implicated as significant contributing factors in more than one-third of cases and can act as either protective or risk factors for delirium, depending on the drug. Pharmacological treatment… Read More »

Management of Anxiety

Physician-Patient Relationship The physician must establish a working therapeutic alliance with any patient (). In the crisis of cancer, heart disease, or surgery, the physician is viewed as the individual who can literally save one’s life and has a unique task. This demands supportive and empathic care in both imparting information and offering hope regardless… Read More »

Opioids In Chronic Pain

The use of opioids in pain of non-malignant origin is controversial and depends on a proper understanding of the nature of chronic pain, and the strategy of its management. Patients with chronic pain who take opioids must understand the rationale for the use and be prepared to be an active partner in the management of… Read More »

Opioid Narcotics

Opium poppies can be seen in Greek drawings and on coins that antedate written Greek literature by at least one thousand years. Homer and Hesiod wrote of the medicinal effects of poppies that symbolized sleep, even death. The standard agent for euthanasia and suicide, which was given to Socrates, was a mixture of hemlock and… Read More »

Opioid Analgesics

Pharmacologic Profile General Use Management of moderate to severe pain. Fentanyl is also used as a general anesthetic adjunct. General Action and Information Opioids bind to opiate receptors in the CNS, where they act as agonists of endogenously occurring opioid peptides (eukephalins and endorphins). The result is alteration to the perception of and response to… Read More »

Typical Antipsychotics For The Treatment Of Schizophrenia

Lithium • Lithium and lithium salts (especially carbonate or citrate) were the focus of research in depression topic in the 1930’s. Lithium carbonate was launched in 1939 by Solvay for the treatment of depression and schizophrenia, and in 2002 Glaxo launched it for the treatment of mania • For many years, the effect of lithium… Read More »

Using Narcotics Appropriately

State and federal clinical practice guidelines do indicate that it is appropriate to ameliorate pain and that the use of pain medications to do so is not illegal. A set of so-called frequently asked questions (FAQ) was released by the Federal Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) along with pain specialists from the University of Wisconsin, in… Read More »