Tag Archives: Flurazepam

Treatment of Insomnia

Several classes of medications are used in the treatment of insomnia. They include the benzodiazepines, non-benzodiazepine hypnotics, antidepressants, and over-the-counter medications. There are six benzodiazepines that are specifically marketed as hypnotics in the United States or in Canada: flurazepam, temazepam, triazolam, estazolam, quazepam, and (in Canada only) nitrazepam. Several other benzodiazepines (e.g., lorazepam, clonazepam, oxazepam),… Read More »

Current Therapies for Insomnia

Most individuals who suffer from insomnia either self-treat with nonprescription sleep aids (e.g., antihistamines, herbal remedies), use alcohol as a sedative, or take no drug therapy at all. For those who do seek professional help (approximately one-third of insomniacs), the majority receive physician-prescribed benzodiazepine or non-benzodiazepine sedative hypnotics to treat their insomnia. Such hypnotic agents… Read More »

Benzodiazepine Hypnotics

Benzodiazepine hypnotics can be categorized into three groups based on their pharmacokinetic characteristics: short-acting, intermediate-acting, and long-acting. Short-acting benzodiazepines such as triazolam (Pfizer’s Halcion, generics) generally have elimination half-lives of 6 hours or less; intermediate-acting benzodiazepines such as temazepam (Mallinckrodf s Restoril, generics), oxazepam (Wyeth’s Serax / Serepax, Boehringer-Ingelheim’s Adumbran, generics), and lormetazepam (Wyeth’s Loramet,… Read More »

Nonbenzodiazepine Hypnotics

Non-benzodiazepine hypnotics were introduced in most markets in the early 1990s. To date, three non-benzodiazepine hypnotics have been launched for insomnia — zolpidem, zopiclone, and zaleplon (Wyeth and King Pharmaceuticals’ Sonata). Characteristics that distinguish these drugs from traditional benzodiazepines (discussed later) are their increased receptor-binding specificity, favorable pharmacokinetics, and overall broader range of safety. More… Read More »

Delirium (Acute Confusional State)

Description of Medical Condition Delirium is a neurologic complication of illness and/or medication use that is especially common in older patients. The key diagnostic features are an acute change in mental status that fluctuates, abnormal attention, and either disorganized thinking or altered level of consciousness. Delirium is a medical emergency requiring immediate evaluation in order… Read More »

Drugs Facilitating Sleep

Drugs of Choice for Insomnia Treatment The drug class of choice for the symptomatic treatment of insomnia is the benzodiazepine receptor agonist (National Institute of Mental Health, 1984). The class name is derived from the recognized mechanism of these drugs. Some have the benzodiazepine chemical structure, whereas others do not. However, they all share the… Read More »

Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Treatment Options, Efficacy, and Effects

Sleep apnea is a condition in which people stop breathing during sleep. The most common type, obstructive sleep apnea (obstructive sleep apnea), occurs primarily as a result of the collapse of upper airway tissues during sleep. It is most often associated with loud snoring and episodes of gasping witnessed by a bed partner. The management… Read More »

Neurodegenerative Disorders

Typical dementing disorders include Alzheimer’s type dementia, Lewy body disease, Jacob-Creutzfeld disease, and fatal familial insomnia (FFI). Because of the impact on diffuse neuronal pathways in many cases, the dementing illnesses can impact regulation of the sleep-wake system, including transmission of the suprachiasmatic nucleus time signal to other parts of the brain. Description of Neurodegenerative… Read More »

Pharmacologic Treatment of Insomnia

The treatment of insomnia since antiquity to the 1960s has included substances and medications such as laudanum, bromides, chloral hydrate, paraldehyde, urethane, and barbiturates. Benzodiazepines have been used to treat insomnia, but problems such as dependence, daytime drowsiness, and prevention of the transition from N2 to N3 sleep have resulted in providers prescribing this class… Read More »

Benzodiazepine Receptor Agonists

Benzodiazepine Receptor Agonists: Indications, Efficacy, and Outcome Many different agents are prescribed to treat insomnia. These agents represent at least 12 different medication classes. Among these classes are agents which mediate their therapeutic effect by binding to sites on the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A receptor complex, thereby enhancing the inhibition that occurs when GABA… Read More »