Tag Archives: Levodopa

Carbamazepine: 100mg, 200mg, 300mg, 400mg. Uses and Administration

Carbamazepine is a dibenzazepine derivative with antiepileptic and psychotropic properties. It is used to control secondarily generalised tonic-clonic seizures and partial seizures, and in some primary generalised seizures. Carbamazepine is also used in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia and has been tried with variable success in glossopharyngeal neuralgia and other severe pain syndromes associated with… Read More »

Restless Legs Syndrome and Periodic Limb Movements

Patients with restless legs syndrome describe subjective discomfort of the lower extremities that worsens at night. Patients can have an irresistible need to move their legs in bed or during prolonged periods of sedentary activity, such as airplane flights. This condition was first described by Ekblom in 1945. As a result of these distressing symptoms,… Read More »

Anxiety Secondary to General Medical Conditions

Many medical problems have been reported to cause anxiety, but their significance is in some cases uncertain due to reporting bias and lack of controlled studies. Nonetheless, it is important for the psychosomatic medicine physician to consider medical causes of anxiety when evaluating an anxious patient. It is particularly important to evaluate medical causes when… Read More »

Selected Chronic Pain Conditions

Postherpetic Neuralgia Postherpetic neuralgia is defined as pain persisting or recurring at the site of shingles at least 3 months after the onset of the acute varicella zoster viral rash. Postherpetic neuralgia occurs in about 10% of patients with acute herpes zoster. More than half of patients over 65 years of age with shingles develop… Read More »

Minor Depression

Etiology and Pathophysiology Minor depression is only a proposed diagnosis in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, and there are no International Classification of Diseases codes to categorize it. The proposed diagnostic category for minor depression in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition describes a depressive disorder that… Read More »

Delirium: Etiology

Delirium has a wide variety of etiologies, which may occur alone or in combination (). These include primary cerebral disorders, systemic disturbances that affect cerebral function, drug and toxin exposure (including intoxication and withdrawal), and a range of factors that can contribute to delirium but have an uncertain role as etiological factors by themselves (psychological… Read More »

Special Considerations for Treatment of Restless Legs Syndrome

Side Effects of Dopaminergic Treatments Dopaminergic agents (dopamine agonists and levodopa) are usually considered first-line therapy in restless legs syndrome. Common side effects of dopamine agonists include nausea, dizziness, orthostatic hypotension, and headache (). A very slow dose titration will help minimize side effects. Hallucinations are another common side effects of dopaminergic therapy in Parkinson’s… Read More »

Treatment of Sleep-Related Movement Disorders

Sleep-related movement disorders represent a newly established category of sleep disorders in the new International Classification of Sleep Disorders, second edition (ICSD-2), recently published. This category includes restless legs syndrome (restless legs syndrome), periodic limb movement disorder (periodic limb movement disorder), sleep-related leg cramps, sleep-related bruxism, sleep-related rhythmic movement disorders (RMDs), sleep-related movement disorder due… Read More »