Tag Archives: Librium

Information about Alzheimer’s Disease for Patients and Families

Alzheimer’s disease is the most common and well-known form of degenerative dementia. By definition, dementia is a syndrome, a cluster of symptoms, of impaired memory and cognition. Dementia is a cognitive disorder that impairs an individual’s memory and ability for reasoning, awareness, and judgment. Cognitive impairment in Alzheimer’s disease may involve disturbance of language (aphasia),… Read More »

Bipolar Disorder – Chronic Illness

Etiology and Pathophysiology Bipolar disorder is a chronic illness characterized by recurrent episodes of aberrant mood. Episodes may manifest with symptoms of mania, hypomania (a less severe form of mania), depression, or a mixture of both depression and mania. Mania is characterized by persistently elevated, expansive, or highly irritable mood that typically lasts for at… Read More »

Treatment of the epilepsy patient with renal disease

Seizures may occur in uraemic encephalopathy, dialysis disequilibrium syndrome and dialysis encephalopathy. In addition, renal insufficiency and dialysis may both have effects on anti-epileptic drug pharmacokinetics. Renal impairment can alter the fraction of anti-epileptic drug absorbed, volume of distribution, protein binding and renal drug clearance. Renal impairment may alter the gastric pH, cause small intestinal… Read More »

The pharmaceutical industry and the new drugs

The pharmaceutical industry played a significant part in establishing the role of the new psychiatric drugs in the 1950s and 1960s. For doing so it is sometimes credited with helping transform psychiatry into a modern ‘medical specialism’. The large-scale marketing campaigns that helped to establish the use of the early neuroleptic and antidepressant drugs are… Read More »

The place of drug treatment in psychiatry

It is difficult to overstate the central role that drug treatment plays in modern-day psychiatry. Psychiatric hospitals and community mental health team activities revolve around the various rituals of drug treatment. A United Kingdom survey of psychiatric hospitals found that 98-100% of inpatients were prescribed drugs and that most take several different ones at the… Read More »

Types of Substances

Because there is great variation among methods of use, tolerance levels, withdrawal symptoms, and intervention, each category will be discussed separately. Substances that are prone to abuse generally fall into six categories: (1) sedatives and central nervous system (CNS) depressants, (2) opioid narcotics, (3) stimulants, (4) psychedelics or hallucinogens, (5) marijuana and hashish, and (6)… Read More »

Substance-Related Disorders: Intervention

The cocaine and crack epidemic of the 1980s challenged traditional alcohol and drug treatment programs, because it resulted in a significant number of people being addicted not only to cocaine or crack but also to alcohol. It pointed out the failure of a system that separates alcoholism and chemical dependency, and it increased the importance… Read More »

Drug-centred drug research

The disease-centred model of drug action has restricted our understanding of the effects of drugs used in psychiatry by directing attention to the effects of drugs on a hypothetical disease process and neglecting other areas. For example, although there is ample research about effects of the new generation of antipsychotic drugs on the numerous different… Read More »

Intervention for Cognitive Disorders: Family

The role of social workers following assessment of irreversible organic mental disorder is primarily with the caregivers, who bear the responsibility for most aspects of the ongoing care of the ill person. Alzheimer’s disease, the most severe form of irreversible organic brain disorder, affects the entire family. It must be recognized that caring for someone… Read More »

Time Required for Antiepileptic Drugs to Work

Absorption Oral medication passes through the stomach and is absorbed in the small intestine. It may then go to the liver, where many drugs are metabolized or broken down, and then enters into the bloodstream. Eventually, antiepileptic drugs reach the brain. Some drugs are mainly eliminated by the kidneys in an unchanged (not metabolized) form.… Read More »