Tag Archives: Metoprolol

Preventive Treatment for Migraine

Migraine is a common episodic headache disorder characterized by attacks that consist of various combinations of headache and neurologie, gastrointestinal, and autonomie symptoms. It has a one-year prevalence of approximately 18% in women, 6% in men, and 4% in children. The second edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-2) subclassifies migraine into migraine… Read More »

Specific Migraine-Preventive Agents

β-Adrenergic Blockers β-blockers, the most widely used class of drugs in prophylactic migraine treatment, are approximately 50% effective in producing a greater than 50% reduction in attack frequency. Rabkin et al. serendipitously discovered propranolol’s effectiveness in headache treatment in patients who were being treated for angina. The Agency for Healthcare Policy and Research (AHCPR) Technical… Read More »

Specific Migraine-Preventive Agents: Other Drugs

Alpha Antagonists The U.S. Headache Consortium Guidelines and the AHCPR Technical Review included 17 controlled trials of a2 agonists for the prevention of migraine: 16 of clonidine () and one of guanfacine. The evidence from these trials suggests that a2 agonists are minimally, and not conclusively, efficacious. Of the 11 placebo-controlled trials of clonidine, 3… Read More »

Specific Migraine-Preventive Agents: Serotonin Antagonists

The antiserotonin, migraine-preventive drugs are potent 5-HT2B- and 5-HT2C-receptor antagonists, whereas metachlorophenyl piperazine (mCPP), a 5-HT2B- and 5-HT2C-receptor agonist, induces migraine in susceptible individuals. Methysergide, cyproheptadine, and pizotifen, effective migraine prophylactic drugs, are 5-HT2B-and 5-HT2C-receptor antagonists, whereas ketanserin, a selective 5-HT2A- and a poor 5-HT2B- and 5-HT2C-receptor antagonist, is not. mCPP, a major metabolite of… Read More »

Specific Migraine-Preventive Agents: Calcium-Channel Antagonists

Calcium, in combination with a calcium-binding protein such as calmodulin or troponin, regulates many functions, including muscle contraction, neurotransmitter and hormone release, and enzyme activity. Its extracellular concentration is high; its intracellular free concentration is 10,000-fold smaller. The concentration gradient is established by membrane pumps and the intracellular sequestering of free calcium. When stimulated, the… Read More »

Drugs Disrupting Sleep

Stimulants Caffeine. Caffeine is a methylxanthine present in a variety of common foods and drinks (). It also is a component of several prescription and OTC drugs and drugs sold on the street as “look-alikes” for amphetamines. Caffeine is an adenosine antagonist, blocking the inhibitory activity of adenosine and thereby producing its stimulatory effects. A… Read More »

Escitalopram 5 mg, 10 mg, 20 mg Tablets

Escitalopram (ess-sital-o-pram) [Lexapro] Escitalopram Classification (The therapeutic classification, which categorizes drugs by the disease state they are used to treat, appears first, followed by the pharmacologic classification, which is based on the drug’s mechanism of action.) Therapeutic class: antidepressants Pharmacologic class of Escitalopram: selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) Pregnancy Category (pregnancy… Read More »

Citalopram 10 mg, 20 mg, 40 mg Tablets

Citalopram (si-tal-oh-pram) [Celexa] Citalopram Classification (The therapeutic classification, which categorizes drugs by the disease state they are used to treat, appears first, followed by the pharmacologic classification, which is based on the drug’s mechanism of action.) Therapeutic class: antidepressants Pharmacologic class of Citalopram: selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) Pregnancy Category (pregnancy… Read More »

Beta-Adrenergic Blockers for Social Phobia

Beta-adrenergic blockers came into use initially as a treatment for cardiac conditions and subsequently showed efficacy in the treatment of essential tremor. Later studies showed a connection between anxiety, signs and symptoms of peripheral arousal, and increased plasma levels of norepinephrine. This led to (beta-blocker trials in nonclinical samples of performers with high levels of… Read More »

Citalopram 10mg, 20mg, 40mg Tablets

Generic Name: Citalopram Hydrobromide Citalopram 10mg Tablets Citalopram 20mg Tablets Citalopram 40mg Tablets 1. What are Citalopram tablets and what are they used for Citalopram is a Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) and belongs to a group of medicines called antidepressants.These medicines help to correct certain chemical imbalances in the brain that are causing the… Read More »