Tag Archives: Mitoxantrone

Disease Modifying Agents in the Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis

Numerous agents have been tested in multiple sclerosis and the vast majority of these have either failed to show a beneficial effect or produced undesirable side effects. In some cases, there was worsening of disease activity. Treatment strategies for multiple sclerosis over the last 16 years have undergone a profound change. Several treatment options are… Read More »

Disease Modifying Agents in the Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis: Currently Approved Agents

Interferons Interferons (IFN) act through cell receptors producing a variety of immu-nological and antiviral effects. Although the exact mechanism of action in multiple sclerosis is unknown, an anti-inflammatory effect may be the result of inhibition of interferon gamma, inhibition of T-cell activation, production of anti-inflammatory cytokines, reduced T-cell migration, decrease blood brain barrier permeability, or… Read More »

Combination Therapy in Multiple Sclerosis

The treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) has been revolutionalized over the past decade. Just 12 years ago, multiple sclerosis was not considered a treatable neurologic illness and our therapeutic armamentarium consisted largely of symptomatic therapies and corticosteroids to treat acute exacerbations. Currently, there are five drugs [the three beta interferons (IFNs) (Avonex®, Betaseron®, and Rebif®),… Read More »

Mitoxantrone in Multiple Sclerosis

Mitoxantrone () was developed in the 1970s and is an antineoplastic agent. It is an anthracenedione derivative related to the anthracyclins doxorubicine and daunorubicine. It interacts with topoisomerase-2, stabilizes its cleavable complex with DNA, thus prevents the ligation of DNA strands, and consecutively delays the cell-cycle progression. Mitoxantrone is used to effectively treat malignancies such… Read More »

Clinical Studies Of Glatiramer Acetate

Clinical Trials Of Glatiramer Acetate In Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis Clinical Trials Of Glatiramer Acetate In Progressive Forms Of Multiple Sclerosis MRI Studies Adverse Events in Trials and Clinical Experience Adverse events in the various Glatiramer Acetate studies were numerous, but relatively mild, and this has been borne out in clinical practice. There were no hematologic… Read More »

Acute Treatments

Most patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) experience relapses characterized by acute or subacute neurological dysfunction lasting days to several weeks followed by a remission with partial or complete resolution of neurological dysfunction. Attacks may occur as part of diverse demyelinating syndromes: clinically isolated syndromes [e.g., isolated optic neuritis (ON), myelitis, or brainstem syndromes], relapsing-remitting multiple… Read More »

Acute Treatment: Mitoxantrone

Several class II and III studies suggest a role for mitoxantrone in treatment of worsening relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis or secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. mitoxantrone has been approved for treatment of worsening RRMS, secondary progressive MS, and progressive relapsing multiple sclerosis. Mitoxantrone is an antineoplastic agent that has been used for prostate cancer and nonlymphocytic leukemia… Read More »

Acute Treatment: Cyclophosphamide

Cyclophosphamide is an alkylating agent with immunosuppressive properties and is commonly used in treatment of immune-mediated disease. The role of cyclophosphamide in multiple sclerosis has been studied extensively, and the current literature supports its use in active inflammatory demyelination. Uncontrolled data suggests that cyclophosphamide may be an effective alternative for treatment of rapidly worsening multiple… Read More »

Treatment Of Breakthrough Disease

There is consensus that therapy in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) in the pediatric age group should be initiated with first-line treatments approved for adult multiple sclerosis (MS), namely one of the three forms of interferon-beta or glatiramer acetate (GA). However, as in adults with multiple sclerosis (MS), the disease remains clinically or radiologically active in… Read More »

Second-Line Drugs Approved In Adult Multiple Sclerosis

Natalizumab Natalizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against alpha-4-integrin, a component of very late antigen-4 (VLA-4) present on leukocytes. By binding to VLA-4, natalizumab blocks the interaction of VLA-4 with the vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM) on the surface of endothelial cells at the blood-brain barrier, thereby greatly reducing the passage of lymphocytes and… Read More »