Tag Archives: Morphine

Pharmacological Treatment of Pain

While medications are often prescribed for all types of chronic pain, research has consistently shown that several classes have proven efficacy for the treatment of neuropathic pain. Ideally, pharmacotherapy of pain would be specifically selected on the basis of considerations of etiology (e.g., ischemic, neuropathic), pathophysiology (e.g., demyelination, central pain), and anatomy (e.g., C fibers,… Read More »

Schizophrenia: Current Therapies

Etiology and Pathophysiology Schizophrenia has varied and ominous symptoms that generally begin in late adolescence or early adulthood and usually continue throughout life. The diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia have evolved over the past 20 years based on the different iterations of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and the International Classification of Diseases.… Read More »

Schizophrenia: Serotonin-Dopamine Antagonists

Serotonin-dopamine antagonists, together with dopamine partial agonists, are considered atypical antipsychotics. serotonin-dopamine antagonists have been used for the treatment of schizophrenia since the early 1990s, and currently marketed serotonin-dopamine antagonists include Novartis’s clozapine (Clozaril/Leponex, generics), Janssen’s risperidone (Risperdal), Eli Lilly’s olanzapine (Zyprexa), AstraZeneca’s quetiapine (Seroquel), and Pfizer’s ziprasidone (Geodon/Zeldox). TABLE . Emerging Therapies in Development… Read More »

Delirium (Acute Confusional State)

Description of Medical Condition Delirium is a neurologic complication of illness and/or medication use that is especially common in older patients. The key diagnostic features are an acute change in mental status that fluctuates, abnormal attention, and either disorganized thinking or altered level of consciousness. Delirium is a medical emergency requiring immediate evaluation in order… Read More »

Delirium: Pharmacological Treatment

Current delirium pharmacotherapies have evolved from use in the treatment of mainstream psychiatric disorders; hence, psychiatrists are well acquainted with the practicalities of their use. Medications are implicated as significant contributing factors in more than one-third of cases and can act as either protective or risk factors for delirium, depending on the drug. Pharmacological treatment… Read More »

Insulin coma therapy

The introduction of insulin coma therapy is a seminal event in the history of modern psychiatry. Even though the aetiological theories behind its use were vague, insulin treatment is important because it was believed to act on the underlying pathological basis of the condition of schizophrenia. It rapidly became popular, its use spreading throughout Europe… Read More »


Pharmacodynamics is the study of the biochemical and physiologic effects of drugs and their mechanisms of action. A drug’s actions may be structurally specific or nonspecific. Structurally specific drugs combine with cell receptors, such as proteins or glycoproteins, to enhance or inhibit cellular enzyme actions. Drug receptors are the cellular components affected at the site… Read More »

Neuropathic Pain — an Overview

Clinical description The traditional neuroanatomical model of the sensory system for pain fails to explain a variety of pain syndromes that are associated with damage to the sensory nerve, or the pathways through dorsal horn to cortex. Likewise, the gate control model of pain, useful as it is for explaining the modulating effect of large… Read More »

Special Considerations for Treatment of Restless Legs Syndrome

Side Effects of Dopaminergic Treatments Dopaminergic agents (dopamine agonists and levodopa) are usually considered first-line therapy in restless legs syndrome. Common side effects of dopamine agonists include nausea, dizziness, orthostatic hypotension, and headache (). A very slow dose titration will help minimize side effects. Hallucinations are another common side effects of dopaminergic therapy in Parkinson’s… Read More »

Sleep-Related Leg Cramps

Demographics Age of Onset Sleep-related leg cramps affect all age groups, but they tend to occur more in middle-aged and older populations. In one study, the mean age of onset of cramps was 60 years; for both males and females (). Leung et al. found that no sleep-related leg cramps were reported in children younger… Read More »