Tag Archives: Nifedipine

Chronic Illness: Current Therapies

The main goal of bipolar disorder drug treatment is to establish euthymia (stable mood with a persistent sense of well-being) without inducing mania or rapid cycling (i.e., four or more mood episodes in a 12-month period). For this reason, drug treatment usually consists of an agent or, more frequently, combinations of agents that exert both… Read More »

Preventive Treatment for Migraine

Migraine is a common episodic headache disorder characterized by attacks that consist of various combinations of headache and neurologie, gastrointestinal, and autonomie symptoms. It has a one-year prevalence of approximately 18% in women, 6% in men, and 4% in children. The second edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-2) subclassifies migraine into migraine… Read More »

Specific Migraine-Preventive Agents: Calcium-Channel Antagonists

Calcium, in combination with a calcium-binding protein such as calmodulin or troponin, regulates many functions, including muscle contraction, neurotransmitter and hormone release, and enzyme activity. Its extracellular concentration is high; its intracellular free concentration is 10,000-fold smaller. The concentration gradient is established by membrane pumps and the intracellular sequestering of free calcium. When stimulated, the… Read More »

Specific Migraine-Preventive Agents: Antidepressants

Antidepressants consist of a number of different classes of drugs with different mechanisms of action. Only tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) have proven efncacy in migraine; we cover the newer components for completeness and reader interest. Mechanism of Action TCAs, selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and serotonin NE-reuptake inhibitors increase synaptic NE or serotonin (5-HT) by inhibiting high-affinity… Read More »

Delirium: Neuropathogenesis

Even though delirium has many different etiologies, its constellation of symptoms is largely stereotyped, with some considered core symptoms. Somehow, this diversity of physiological perturbations translates into a common clinical expression that may represent dysfunction ofcertain neural circuits (as well as neurotransmitters) —  that is, a final common neural pathway. The involvement of certain specific… Read More »

Special Considerations for Treatment of Sleep-Related Rhythmic Movement Disorder

The clinical features of rhythmic movement disorder (rhythmic movement disorder) have been described in chapters 43 and 45, and treatment approaches have been discussed in chapter 48. Age and Gender Effects of Treatment Sleep-related rhythmic movements have a very high prevalence in newborns and very young children, which then continuously declines with advancing age (60%… Read More »

Special Considerations for Treatment of Sleep-Related Bruxism

The prevalence, symptomatology, clinical implication, and suspected pathophysiology of bruxism have been discussed in chapters 43 to 45. Dental splints are among the most often prescribed treatments for bruxism.A splint will help reduce damage to the teeth, possibly also the temporomandibular joints, but may worsen bruxism or sleep apnea. A marked aggravation of respiratory disturbances… Read More »

Sleep-Related Leg Cramps

Demographics Age of Onset Sleep-related leg cramps affect all age groups, but they tend to occur more in middle-aged and older populations. In one study, the mean age of onset of cramps was 60 years; for both males and females (). Leung et al. found that no sleep-related leg cramps were reported in children younger… Read More »

Sleep-Related Bruxism

Demographics Age of Onset The onset of sleep-related bruxism () is at about one year of age, soon after the eruption of the deciduous incisors (AASM). Sleep-related bruxism is believed to show a high night-to-night fluctuation, with none occurring on some nights and severe sleep-related bruxism on others (). Sex The sex ratio of sleep-related… Read More »

Sleep-Related Rhythmic Movement Disorder

Demographics Age of Onset Age of onset of sleep-related rhythmic movement disorder generally is between 8 and 18 months. Spontaneous onset in adolescence or adulthood is very rare (AASM). In a study of 525 healthy children aged three months to six years, body rocking appeared first at the age of about six months, followed then,… Read More »