Tag Archives: Nimodipine

Pharmacological Treatment of Dementia

General guidelines for psychotropic medication use in frail elderly patients are applicable. Systematic evidence to support the effectiveness of particular psychotropic drugs in dementia patients is limited. Therefore, choice of drug class may be based on clinical evidence, and choice of agent is often based on the side-effect profile and on the characteristics of a… Read More »

Chronic Illness: Current Therapies

The main goal of bipolar disorder drug treatment is to establish euthymia (stable mood with a persistent sense of well-being) without inducing mania or rapid cycling (i.e., four or more mood episodes in a 12-month period). For this reason, drug treatment usually consists of an agent or, more frequently, combinations of agents that exert both… Read More »

Preventive Treatment for Migraine

Migraine is a common episodic headache disorder characterized by attacks that consist of various combinations of headache and neurologie, gastrointestinal, and autonomie symptoms. It has a one-year prevalence of approximately 18% in women, 6% in men, and 4% in children. The second edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-2) subclassifies migraine into migraine… Read More »

Specific Migraine-Preventive Agents: Calcium-Channel Antagonists

Calcium, in combination with a calcium-binding protein such as calmodulin or troponin, regulates many functions, including muscle contraction, neurotransmitter and hormone release, and enzyme activity. Its extracellular concentration is high; its intracellular free concentration is 10,000-fold smaller. The concentration gradient is established by membrane pumps and the intracellular sequestering of free calcium. When stimulated, the… Read More »

Migraine

Migraine is a primary headache. Diagnosis can be made from the history. However, investigation may be required to exclude headache of other aetiology. Pathophysiology There are vascular and neural hypotheses. The ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve supplies painful structures within the head. Stimulation of the trigeminal ganglion releases a peptide from trigeminal neurones which… Read More »

Antidementia drugs approved in Germany

In Germany several antidementia drugs have been used for many years, some even for decades. At the end of the 1980s, the Bundesgesundheitsamt and the Bundesinstitut fur Arzneimittel und Medizinprodukte, respectively, introduced a commission to re-evaluate the existing scientific literature about the efficacy of these drugs. Unfortunately, the commission was discharged before its task had… Read More »

Side Effects of Mood Stabilizers and Atypical Antipsychotics

This post provides an overview of developmental issues related to side effects, and then reviews the most common adverse events and concerns related to mood stabilizers and atypical antipsychotics. There are clear developmental differences in adverse event expression or side effects risks when mood stabilizers and antipsychotics are used in children and adolescents. All the… Read More »