Tag Archives: Oxycodone

Pharmacological Treatment of Pain

While medications are often prescribed for all types of chronic pain, research has consistently shown that several classes have proven efficacy for the treatment of neuropathic pain. Ideally, pharmacotherapy of pain would be specifically selected on the basis of considerations of etiology (e.g., ischemic, neuropathic), pathophysiology (e.g., demyelination, central pain), and anatomy (e.g., C fibers,… Read More »

Delirium (Acute Confusional State)

Description of Medical Condition Delirium is a neurologic complication of illness and/or medication use that is especially common in older patients. The key diagnostic features are an acute change in mental status that fluctuates, abnormal attention, and either disorganized thinking or altered level of consciousness. Delirium is a medical emergency requiring immediate evaluation in order… Read More »

Opioids In Chronic Pain

The use of opioids in pain of non-malignant origin is controversial and depends on a proper understanding of the nature of chronic pain, and the strategy of its management. Patients with chronic pain who take opioids must understand the rationale for the use and be prepared to be an active partner in the management of… Read More »

Opioid Narcotics

Opium poppies can be seen in Greek drawings and on coins that antedate written Greek literature by at least one thousand years. Homer and Hesiod wrote of the medicinal effects of poppies that symbolized sleep, even death. The standard agent for euthanasia and suicide, which was given to Socrates, was a mixture of hemlock and… Read More »

Pharmacological Treatment Of Restless Legs Syndrome

Dopaminergic Agents in the Treatment Of Restless Legs Syndrome Levodopa was the first dopaminergic agent found effective in restless legs syndrome and has since shown evidence of efficacy in controlled trials. Benes et al. found improved quality of sleep, reduced sleep latency, and better quality of life with levodopa / benserazide given in a single… Read More »

Management of Periodic Limb Movement Disorder

Periodic limb movements in sleep represent a habitual motor accompaniment of restless legs syndrome, found in over 80% of the cases on polysomnography. The recent finding that genes associated with restless legs syndrome are highly associated with periodic limb movements in sleep also indicates the close, but poorly understood relationship between the two. Periodic limb… Read More »

Opioid Analgesics

Pharmacologic Profile General Use Management of moderate to severe pain. Fentanyl is also used as a general anesthetic adjunct. General Action and Information Opioids bind to opiate receptors in the CNS, where they act as agonists of endogenously occurring opioid peptides (eukephalins and endorphins). The result is alteration to the perception of and response to… Read More »

Using Narcotics Appropriately

State and federal clinical practice guidelines do indicate that it is appropriate to ameliorate pain and that the use of pain medications to do so is not illegal. A set of so-called frequently asked questions (FAQ) was released by the Federal Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) along with pain specialists from the University of Wisconsin, in… Read More »

Drugs for Treatment of Chronic Pain

The purpose of this post is to go over the various types of medications that can be used for the treatment of pain. Many of the medications have been discussed previously, but this post attempts to consolidate these various medications. There are two more pain states that need to be discussed: chronic pain, which persists… Read More »

Opioids

The antinociceptive pain pathways have been described in detail in site. The descending pathways are opioid and monoaminergically based. The opioid analgesics appear to produce analgesia by inhibiting the ascending pain pathways (which carry nociceptive information to the brain), and activate the descending pain control pathways, which go from the CNS down the ventromedial medulla… Read More »