Tag Archives: Pamine

Pharmacological Treatment of Dementia

General guidelines for psychotropic medication use in frail elderly patients are applicable. Systematic evidence to support the effectiveness of particular psychotropic drugs in dementia patients is limited. Therefore, choice of drug class may be based on clinical evidence, and choice of agent is often based on the side-effect profile and on the characteristics of a… Read More »

Subcortical Dementias

Huntington’s Disease Huntington’s disease has the three main characteristics of the subcortical dementia syndrome, together with the classic choreoathetoid movement disorder and a positive family history. Huntington’s disease usually has its onset in the third or fourth decade, although juvenile forms occasionally occur. The psychopathology, both cognitive and noncognitive, may appear before the movement abnormalities.… Read More »

Alzheimer’s Therapy: Neurotransmitter Modulators

Overview. Drugs that modulate neurotransmitter (NT) activity are targeted toward symptomatic relief of Alzheimer’s disease and are not considered disease-modifying therapies. Alzheimer’s disease is characterized by the broad loss of neurons — in addition to the loss of cholinergic neurons, Alzheimer’s disease results in the loss of other neurons essential to normal brain function, including… Read More »

Alzheimer’s Therapy: Antidepressants

Overview. Major depression affects approximately 15% of Alzheimer’s disease patients. By comparison, 5-12% of the general population aged 15 years or older in the major pharmaceutical markets experience at least one episode of major depression per year. Because depression itself may lead to declines in cognition and function, treatment of depression in Alzheimer’s disease patients… Read More »

Alzheimer’s Therapy: Antipsychotics

Overview. Behavioral problems are prevalent in later stages of Alzheimer’s disease, when 50-60% of patients develop severe psychotic symptoms (). Behavioral symptoms range from depression and apathy to delusions, hallucinations, and aggressiveness. They are extremely distressing and burdensome to caregivers and affect both the quality of patient care and the choice of treatment. Aggressive and… Read More »

Alzheimer’s Therapy: Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors

Overview. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are the only drugs approved for the treatment of mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease in the major markets. acetylcholinesterase inhibitors do not cure Alzheimer’s disease but do alleviate the cholinergic deficit observed in Alzheimer’s disease patients. Cognitive symptoms are occasionally improved but most often are only stabilized by the drugs (). Studies… Read More »

Pharmacotherapy of Adult ADHD

Originally conceptualized as a disorder of childhood (), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is increasingly recognized in adults. attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is estimated to affect 2-9% of school-age children and up to 5% of adults (). Although some investigators question the persistence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adulthood (), long-term controlled follow-up studies… Read More »

Stimulants in the treatment of adults with ADHD

Stimulant treatment of adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder can be characterized as follows. Stimulants represent the first-line pharamcotherapy for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults. The two main types of stimulants, methylphenidate and amphetamine compounds, have different effects and are metabolized differently. Methylphenidate does not show up on urine drug screens. Stimulants are not… Read More »

Nonstimulant medications in the treatment of adults with ADHD

Here are some important points regarding nonstimulants in the treatment of adults with ADHD. Tricyclic antidepressants and bupropion are second-line therapies. Antidepressant dosing of the agents appears necessary for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder efficacy. Serotonergic medications do not appear effective in the treatment of core attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms but may be useful for… Read More »

Sedating Antidepressants

Given the high comorbidity of insomnia and depression and / or anxiety, sedating antidepressants have considerable relevance for treating insomnia. (Note: Sedating antidepressants can effectively treat both depressive and anxious symptoms.) The sleep-promoting properties of the sedating antidepressants, as well as their lack of abuse potential or propensity to induce tolerance, make these agents viable… Read More »