Tag Archives: Phencyclidine

Overview of New Anxiolytics

Although the benzodiazepines have been the treatment of choice for anxiety disorders for many years, unfavorable aspects to their side-effect profile have initiated efforts to develop new-generation antianxiety agents. Over the past decade, scientists have been searching for compounds that retain the robust anxiolytic efficacy of benzodiazepines, but lack a number of unwanted properties, including… Read More »

Schizophrenia: Current Therapies

Etiology and Pathophysiology Schizophrenia has varied and ominous symptoms that generally begin in late adolescence or early adulthood and usually continue throughout life. The diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia have evolved over the past 20 years based on the different iterations of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and the International Classification of Diseases.… Read More »

Schizophrenia: Other Pharmacological Treatments

Because antipsychotic medications often fail to resolve the full range of schizophrenic psychopathology and other common symptoms (e.g., anxiety, depression, mood instability, motor unrest), adjunctive treatments are commonly tried. Adjunctive pharmacological treatments in patients with schizophrenia have been the subject of numerous reviews (). In addition, some psychotropic medications other than antipsychotics have been used… Read More »

Anxiety and Anxiety Disorders in Medical Settings

Health concerns rank with financial issues as major sources of anxiety for individuals (). Both disease states and medical settings foster such fears. Wells and colleagues () noted that 6-month and lifetime prevalence rates of anxiety disorders in patients with chronic medical conditions were 15.3% and 21.3%, respectively. These rates were significantly higher than those… Read More »

Types of Substances

Because there is great variation among methods of use, tolerance levels, withdrawal symptoms, and intervention, each category will be discussed separately. Substances that are prone to abuse generally fall into six categories: (1) sedatives and central nervous system (CNS) depressants, (2) opioid narcotics, (3) stimulants, (4) psychedelics or hallucinogens, (5) marijuana and hashish, and (6)… Read More »


Kindling is the increased behavioral and electrophysiological responsivity to repeated intermittent stimulation of the brain with initially subthreshold and subconvulsant stimulation, usually of the amygdala, that comes to evoke full-blown major motor seizures. It forms a useful nonhomolo-gous animal model for several components of the course of recurrent affective disorders. Instead of electrical stimulation of… Read More »

Biochemical hypotheses

The more classic theories suggest that hyperactivity of the D2 dopamine system underlines schizophrenia, corrected with antipsychotic drugs. However, other neurotransmitters are also involved, particularly acetylcholine and serotonin, and other neuromodulators (e.g., glutamate hypofunction) which, in turn, modulate the dopamine system and other brain paths and circuits. Without doubt alterations in the neurotransmission in schizophrenia… Read More »