Tag Archives: Phenobarbital

Phenobarbital: 15 mg; 30mg ; 60mg; 100mg. Uses and Administration

Phenobarbital is a barbiturate that may be used as an antiepileptic to control partial and generalised tonic-clonic seizures. It is also used as part of the emergency management of acute seizures including status epilepticus. The dose should be adjusted to the needs of the individual patient to achieve adequate control of seizures; this usually requires… Read More »

Treatment Of Childhood Absence Epilepsy

Childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) typically requires treatment because the seizures are frequent and interfere with normal cognitive functioning. International League Against Epilepsy Guidelines (Newly Diagnosed Epilepsy) According to the ILAE guidelines, the absence of class I and class II randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for children with absence seizures implies a marked deficiency in adequately powered,… Read More »

Treatment Of IGE With GTC Seizures Only

The syndrome of primary generalized-onset tonic–clonic seizures presents the clinician with nosologic, diagnostic and treatment difficulties. Some patients with IGE appear to have generalized-onset tonic–clonic seizures alone and the 1989 ILAE epilepsy classification individualized epilepsy with grand mal seizures on awakening and epilepsies with specific modes of precipitation. The evolving classification of IGE uses more… Read More »

Treatment Of Childhood Absence Epilepsy: American Academy Of Neurology Guidelines

New Anti-Epileptic Drugs Only American Academy of Neurology (AAN) guidelines evaluating efficacy of new anti-epileptic drugs state only that lamotrigine is effective in children with newly diagnosed absence seizures (level B recommendation). Ethosuximide After ethosuximide was described as effective in absence epilepsy in 1958, a number of open-label, non-comparative studies where ethosuximide was added to… Read More »

Treatment Of The Child Or Adolescent With Newly Diagnosed Epilepsy

Paediatric epilepsy is amazingly diverse. In some children, basic diagnosis, seizure classification and treatment are straightforward. Other patients have difficult-to-diagnose seizures, complicated seizure classification and a variable response to treatment. Some seizures are subclinical, others are barely noticeable, and occasionally they are life threatening. Many children with epilepsy have no associated disabilities, but all children… Read More »

Outgrowing Epilepsy in Children

Slightly more than half of the children who have epilepsy outgrow it. This simple and positive fact raises important questions: Which children should be treated? How much medication should they receive? How long should antiepileptic drugs be used? Doctors’ views on antiepileptic drugs have changed. Several decades ago, many doctors believed that seizures must be… Read More »

Epilepsy in Adolescence

The passage from childhood to adulthood is surrounded by issues of rebellion, indepen dence, heightened self-consciousness, experimentation, dating, driving, and concerns for the future. Adolescents and their parents share the highs and lows of this often stormy period, and communication between them is essential to temper its turbulence. This is a challenge for both parents… Read More »

Dietary Therapies for Epilepsy in Children

For centuries, starvation and dehydration were reported to improve seizure control. In addition, substances as diverse as mistletoe, turpentine, and marijuana were claimed to be effective for epilepsy. In 1858, Sir Sieveking wrote, “There is scarcely a substance in the world, capable of passing through the gullet of man, that has not at one time… Read More »

Treatment of the epilepsy: the acutely unwell or periprocedural patient

People with epilepsy are often considered to be at higher risk when undergoing procedures. This is mainly due to the possibility of seizures occurring periprocedurally or due to the potential for interactions between drugs used during the procedure and the patient’s anti-epileptic drugs. Factors which may exacerbate seizures, such as sleep deprivation and alcohol, should… Read More »

Treatment of the epilepsy patient with hepatic disease

The liver is the principal organ of drug metabolism. Some drugs are absorbed from the gut, delivered to the liver and undergo first-pass metabolism prior to reaching the systemic circulation. Metabolism of these drugs is significantly affected by hepatic vascular supply; if hepatic blood flow is reduced, first-pass metabolism is decreased and more drug reaches… Read More »