Tag Archives: Piperazine

Overview of New Anxiolytics

Although the benzodiazepines have been the treatment of choice for anxiety disorders for many years, unfavorable aspects to their side-effect profile have initiated efforts to develop new-generation antianxiety agents. Over the past decade, scientists have been searching for compounds that retain the robust anxiolytic efficacy of benzodiazepines, but lack a number of unwanted properties, including… Read More »

Pharmacotherapy in the Treatment of People With Schizophrenia

The pharmacological agents most primarily associated with treatment of schizophrenia are grouped in a large and heterogeneous family, the antipsychotics. Recently, this family has been subdivided into the typicals, or neuroleptics, and the atypicals (see Tables Selected Typical Antipsychotic Drugs and Their Characteristics and Atypical Antipsychotics: Relative Potencies and Side Effects). The neuroleptics are so… Read More »

Specific Migraine-Preventive Agents: Serotonin Antagonists

The antiserotonin, migraine-preventive drugs are potent 5-HT2B- and 5-HT2C-receptor antagonists, whereas metachlorophenyl piperazine (mCPP), a 5-HT2B- and 5-HT2C-receptor agonist, induces migraine in susceptible individuals. Methysergide, cyproheptadine, and pizotifen, effective migraine prophylactic drugs, are 5-HT2B-and 5-HT2C-receptor antagonists, whereas ketanserin, a selective 5-HT2A- and a poor 5-HT2B- and 5-HT2C-receptor antagonist, is not. mCPP, a major metabolite of… Read More »

Therapy for PTSD: Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors

The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are now widely used in anxiety disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder. There are underlying reasons for the relevance of serotonin to posttraumatic stress disorder. In some animal models, evidence suggests that serotonin type 2 (5-HT2) receptor pathways are mediators of conditioned avoidance as well as resilience to stress and learned… Read More »

Combination Strategies: Adding Another Treatment to the Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor

The patient who has had a partial response to serotonin reuptake inhibitor monotherapy or failed to show any improvement following two consecutive trials with different serotonin reuptake inhibitors is a candidate for combination treatment. Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Plus Behavior Therapy Although a combination of an serotonin reuptake inhibitor and exposure and response prevention is believed… Read More »

Antipsychotics For The Treatment Of Schizophrenia

Following the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification system by WHO Collaborating Centre for Drug Statistics Methodology), antipsychotics (ATC N05A) are classified as: • N05AA Phenothiazines with aliphatic side-chain: Chlorpromazine, Levomepromazine, Promazine, Triflupromazine, Cyamemazine, Chlorproethazine • N05AB Phenothiazines with piperazine structure: Dixyrazine, Fluphenazine, Perphenazine, Prochlorperazine, Thiopropazate, Trifluoperazine, Acetophenazine, Thioproperazine, Butaperazine, Perazine • N05AC Phenothiazines with piperidine… Read More »

Atypical Antipsychotics For The Treatment Of Schizophrenia

Clozapine • Clozapine was discovered in 1952, developed by Sandoz (Novartis), and introduced in Europe in 1972 • Clozapine is a dibenzodiazepine derivative that was the first of the atypical antipsychotics to be developed • It has high affinity for dopamine D4 receptor and relatively week activity at D1, D2, D3, and D5 receptors. Clozapine… Read More »

Typical Antipsychotics For The Treatment Of Schizophrenia

Lithium • Lithium and lithium salts (especially carbonate or citrate) were the focus of research in depression topic in the 1930’s. Lithium carbonate was launched in 1939 by Solvay for the treatment of depression and schizophrenia, and in 2002 Glaxo launched it for the treatment of mania • For many years, the effect of lithium… Read More »

Dysfunction of Neurotransmitter Systems

Norepinephrine Many patients with posttraumatic stress disorder exhibit hyperarousal as a consequence of centrally increased noradrenergic stimulation and involvement of the locus coeruleus. This is similar to the changes in the norepinephrine system that may be present in panic disorder. Another similarity with panic disorder comes from studies using yohimbine, which increases noradrenergic function as… Read More »

Narcolepsy: Pharmacologic Therapy

The Standards of Practice Committee of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) provides a periodically updated list of medicines recognized for the treatments of hypersomnolence associated with narcolepsy. The list has included modafinil, amphetamines, and amphetamine-like drugs (methylphenidate), whereas sodium oxybate, non-sedating tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs, protriptyline), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs, fluoxetine), and monoamine… Read More »