Tag Archives: Protriptyline

Pharmacological Treatment of Pain

While medications are often prescribed for all types of chronic pain, research has consistently shown that several classes have proven efficacy for the treatment of neuropathic pain. Ideally, pharmacotherapy of pain would be specifically selected on the basis of considerations of etiology (e.g., ischemic, neuropathic), pathophysiology (e.g., demyelination, central pain), and anatomy (e.g., C fibers,… Read More »

Minor Depression: Tricyclic Antidepressant

Tricyclic antidepressants entered the market in the 1960s after the Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors but quickly lost their popularity when the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors entered the market. Although tricyclic antidepressants are as effective as the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors in treating most forms of depression, they have the potential for cardiotoxicity… Read More »

Minor Depression: Escitalopram, Paroxetine, Sertraline, and Fluoxetine

Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors The seven available agents in the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor class are citalopram (Lund-beck’s Cipramil, Forest Laboratories’ Celexa, generics) and its single enan-tiomer, escitalopram (Lundbeck’s Cipralex, Forest’s Lexapro); paroxetine (GSK’s Paxil/Seroxat, Novartis’s Frosinor, generics); the controlled-release version of paroxetine (GSK’s Paxil CR); sertraline (Pfizer’s Zoloft); fluoxetine (Eli Lilly’s Prozac, generics); and… Read More »

Preventive Treatment for Migraine

Migraine is a common episodic headache disorder characterized by attacks that consist of various combinations of headache and neurologie, gastrointestinal, and autonomie symptoms. It has a one-year prevalence of approximately 18% in women, 6% in men, and 4% in children. The second edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-2) subclassifies migraine into migraine… Read More »

Specific Migraine-Preventive Agents

β-Adrenergic Blockers β-blockers, the most widely used class of drugs in prophylactic migraine treatment, are approximately 50% effective in producing a greater than 50% reduction in attack frequency. Rabkin et al. serendipitously discovered propranolol’s effectiveness in headache treatment in patients who were being treated for angina. The Agency for Healthcare Policy and Research (AHCPR) Technical… Read More »

Specific Migraine-Preventive Agents: Antidepressants

Antidepressants consist of a number of different classes of drugs with different mechanisms of action. Only tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) have proven efncacy in migraine; we cover the newer components for completeness and reader interest. Mechanism of Action TCAs, selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and serotonin NE-reuptake inhibitors increase synaptic NE or serotonin (5-HT) by inhibiting high-affinity… Read More »

Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Treatment Options, Efficacy, and Effects

Sleep apnea is a condition in which people stop breathing during sleep. The most common type, obstructive sleep apnea (obstructive sleep apnea), occurs primarily as a result of the collapse of upper airway tissues during sleep. It is most often associated with loud snoring and episodes of gasping witnessed by a bed partner. The management… Read More »

Antidepressant Drugs and Sexual Dysfunction

Reports of rates of sexual dysfunction in clinical populations vary widely. The main reason for such variation is the range of methods employed to collect the data. Early studies with antidepressants relied on spontaneous self-report by patients and tended to yield relatively low rates: they also failed to distinguish between rates of different forms of… Read More »

Pharmacotherapy for Depression

Pharmacological treatments have gained popularity during the last 50 years as a method of treatment intervention for depression as well as for many other psychological disorders. They have been proven effective in ameliorating the symptoms for a large percentage of depressed individuals and are now the most common form of treatment for depression. The constraints… Read More »

Anxiety Disorders, Benzodiazepines, Buspirone, and SSRIs

Anxiety disorders are a group of disorders characterized by a feeling of dread, and often accompanied by physical complaints. The five types of anxiety disorders include panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, phobic disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Additionally, depression can have associated features of anxiety as part of the symptom complex. Anxiety is… Read More »