Tag Archives: Reserpine

Minor Depression

Etiology and Pathophysiology Minor depression is only a proposed diagnosis in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, and there are no International Classification of Diseases codes to categorize it. The proposed diagnostic category for minor depression in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition describes a depressive disorder that… Read More »

Aetiology of Mood Disorders in Children and Adolescents

Neurochemical theories The catecholamine theory of affective disorders, stating that depression was associated with a deficit of NA neurotransmission and mania with an excess, was first published by Schildkraut and later expanded to include an abnormality of serotonergic function. This view of neurotransmitter functioning is, however, too simplistic and has been challenged by several observations,… Read More »

Antidepressant Drugs

Pharmacologic Profile General Use Used in the treatment of various forms of endogenous depression, often in conjunction with psychotherapy. Other uses include: Treatment of anxiety (doxepin, fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline, venlafaxine); Enuresis (imipramine); Chronic pain syndromes (amitriptyline, doxepin, imipramine, nortriptyline); Smoking cessation (bupropion); Bulimia (fluoxetine); Obsessive-compulsive disorder (fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, sertraline); Social anxiety disorder (paroxetine, sertraline).… Read More »

Invention Of The Chemical-Imbalance Theory

The 1950s gave rise to the Korean War, the Cuban revolution, the Hungarian revolution, the hydrogen bomb, beatniks ― and antidepressants. Two different types of antidepressants were developed during this decade, and in both cases the discovery of apparent antidepressant effects was serendipitous. The story of how antidepressants were discovered ― or perhaps ‘invented’ might… Read More »

The Empirical Basis Of The Chemical-Imbalance Theory

The monoamine hypothesis made a good story. There is only one problem with it. It does not really fit the data. It didn’t fit the data that were available in the 1960s when the theory was developed, and it does not fit the data that have accumulated since then. The Myth of Reserpine-lnduced Depression What… Read More »

The Myth of Reserpine-lnduced Depression

Part of the initial argument for the chemical-imbalance hypothesis was that reserpine supposedly decreases the availability of monoamines and thereby makes people depressed. But does it? Like the articles indicating that iproniazid and imipramine functioned as antidepressants, the conclusion that reserpine makes people depressed was based on clinical reports, rather than controlled trials. In 1971… Read More »

What Happens When Serotonin Is Reduced

When Schildkraut introduced the monoamine theory of depression, he admitted that there was little direct evidence for it. Instead, it was based on the supposed effectiveness of antidepressant medication and the mistaken belief that reserpine makes people depressed. Schildkraut acknowledged that: ‘Most of this evidence is indirect, deriving from pharmacological studies with drugs such as… Read More »

Principles of management

The management of major depressive disorder (major depressive disorder) involves establishing a correct diagnosis and applying evidence based and goal directed principles of treatment. These treatment principles include recognizing and treating any coexisting medical conditions, building a therapeutic alliance with patients and choosing an appropriate treatment, as well as monitoring and maintaining response (Table Nine… Read More »

Treatment Of Tardive Dyskinesia

The American Psychiatric Association Task Force on tardive dyskinesia concluded that there is no consistently effective treatment for tardive dyskinesia. If the patient is on anticholiner-gics medications, they need to be discontinued because they tend to make tardive dyskinesia worse. Examples of withdrawal dyskinesias and chronic dyskinesia were presented in site. Medications that have been… Read More »