Tag Archives: Revia

Minor Depression: Escitalopram, Paroxetine, Sertraline, and Fluoxetine

Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors The seven available agents in the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor class are citalopram (Lund-beck’s Cipramil, Forest Laboratories’ Celexa, generics) and its single enan-tiomer, escitalopram (Lundbeck’s Cipralex, Forest’s Lexapro); paroxetine (GSK’s Paxil/Seroxat, Novartis’s Frosinor, generics); the controlled-release version of paroxetine (GSK’s Paxil CR); sertraline (Pfizer’s Zoloft); fluoxetine (Eli Lilly’s Prozac, generics); and… Read More »

Delirium (Acute Confusional State)

Description of Medical Condition Delirium is a neurologic complication of illness and/or medication use that is especially common in older patients. The key diagnostic features are an acute change in mental status that fluctuates, abnormal attention, and either disorganized thinking or altered level of consciousness. Delirium is a medical emergency requiring immediate evaluation in order… Read More »

Personality Disorders

Description of Medical Condition A group of conditions, with onset at or before adolescence, characterized by enduring patterns of maladaptive and dysfunctional behavior that deviate markedly from one’s culture and social environment leading to functional impairment and distress to the individual, coworkers and the family. These behaviors are perceived by the patient to be “normal”… Read More »

Chronic Illness: Current Therapies

The main goal of bipolar disorder drug treatment is to establish euthymia (stable mood with a persistent sense of well-being) without inducing mania or rapid cycling (i.e., four or more mood episodes in a 12-month period). For this reason, drug treatment usually consists of an agent or, more frequently, combinations of agents that exert both… Read More »

Preventive Treatment for Migraine

Migraine is a common episodic headache disorder characterized by attacks that consist of various combinations of headache and neurologie, gastrointestinal, and autonomie symptoms. It has a one-year prevalence of approximately 18% in women, 6% in men, and 4% in children. The second edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-2) subclassifies migraine into migraine… Read More »

Nonprescription Pharmacotherapies: Alcohol, Over-the-Counter, and Complementary and Alternative Medicines

A large percentage of individuals with insomnia self-medicate with alcohol, over-the-counter (OTC) antihistamines, or complementary and alternative preparations. In the United States, the formulation and manufacture of OTC products are regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Other products not requiring a prescription, such as dietary supplements, are unregulated. The National Center for… Read More »

MRI Studies

Preliminary Data MRI studies were not included in the phase III pivotal trial, except for those done at a single site, which showed a trend toward reduction in enhancing and T2 lesions with Glatiramer Acetate. In another small study, Mancardi and colleagues followed 10 patients with monthly gadolinium-enhanced scans for 9 to 27 months before… Read More »

Relaxation Training and Meditation

A commonly recommended treatment for insomnia is some type of relaxation training. This includes a variety of procedures such as progressive relaxation, diaphragmatic breathing, autogenic training, meditation, yoga, and hypnosis. Progressive relaxation, developed by Edmund Jacobson (1938) and presented in manual form for more abbreviated use by Bernstein and Borkovec (1973), is the most widely… Read More »

Delirium: Cognitive Assessment

Because delirium is primarily a cognitive disorder, bedside assessment of cognition is critical to proper diagnosis. Although all cognitive domains — orientation, attention, short-and long-term memory, visuoconstructional ability, and executive function — are affected in delirium, attention deficits are the most specifically emphasized in DSM. Pattern and timing of deficits assist in differential diagnosis from… Read More »