Tag Archives: Ropinirole

Special Considerations for Treatment of Restless Legs Syndrome

Side Effects of Dopaminergic Treatments Dopaminergic agents (dopamine agonists and levodopa) are usually considered first-line therapy in restless legs syndrome. Common side effects of dopamine agonists include nausea, dizziness, orthostatic hypotension, and headache (). A very slow dose titration will help minimize side effects. Hallucinations are another common side effects of dopaminergic therapy in Parkinson’s… Read More »

Rapid Eye Movement Parasomnias

REM Sleep Behavior Disorder Nightmare Disorder According to the second edition of International Classification of Sleep Disorders, nightmares are disturbing mental experiences that generally occur during rapid eye movement sleep and that often result in awakening. Emotions usually involve anxiety, fear, or terror, but frequently also anger, sadness, embarrassment, disgust, and other negative feelings. Dream… Read More »

Pharmacological Treatment Of Restless Legs Syndrome

Dopaminergic Agents in the Treatment Of Restless Legs Syndrome Levodopa was the first dopaminergic agent found effective in restless legs syndrome and has since shown evidence of efficacy in controlled trials. Benes et al. found improved quality of sleep, reduced sleep latency, and better quality of life with levodopa / benserazide given in a single… Read More »

Management of Periodic Limb Movement Disorder

Periodic limb movements in sleep represent a habitual motor accompaniment of restless legs syndrome, found in over 80% of the cases on polysomnography. The recent finding that genes associated with restless legs syndrome are highly associated with periodic limb movements in sleep also indicates the close, but poorly understood relationship between the two. Periodic limb… Read More »

Antiparkinson Drugs

Pharmacologic Profile General Use Used in the treatment of parkinsonism of various causes: degenerative, toxic, infective, neoplastic, or drug-induced. General Action and Information Drugs used in the treatment of the parkinsonian syndrome and other dyskinesias are aimed at restoring the natural balance of two major neurotransmitters in the CNS: acetylcholine and dopamine. The imbalance is… Read More »

Parasomnias: Pharmacological Treatment

The arousal disorders can occur or increase in intensity secondary to medications that increase the amount of deep sleep. Such medications include lithium, γ-hydroxybutyrate, and the opiates. Nicotine, caffeine, and alcohol have been implicated as well in somnambulism. The clinical use of pharmacological agents affecting the neurotransmitters norepinephr-ine, serotonin, and dopamine are associated with the… Read More »

Treatment Of Specific Parasomnias

Disorders of Arousal The disorders of arousal constitute a continuum of overlapping disorders, all of which respond to the same general therapeutic manipulations. The disorders of arousal are most generally treated with environmental protection of the patient and family reassurance, particularly in children since the parasomnia most often decreases and disappears as the individual enters… Read More »

Sleep-Related Dissociative Disorders

Demographics One study reported a prevalence of 7% in patients presenting to the sleep clinic. These disorders are thought to be more prevalent in women. Key Symptoms and Signs Sleep-related dissociative disorders are a distinct but related variant of dissociative disorders. Episodes are typically elaborate behaviors occurring at transitions from wakefulness to sleep or within… Read More »

Sleep Enuresis

Demographics Primary sleep enuresis is present in 15% to 25% of 5-year-olds, 10% of 6-year-olds, 7% of 7-year-olds, 5% of 10-year-olds, 3% of 12-year-olds, and 1% to 2% of 18-year-olds. It has been reported in 2.1% of adults. Hublin et al. found enuresis occurring weekly in 0.3% of females and 0.1% of males, which may… Read More »