Tag Archives: Temazepam

Treatment of Insomnia

Several classes of medications are used in the treatment of insomnia. They include the benzodiazepines, non-benzodiazepine hypnotics, antidepressants, and over-the-counter medications. There are six benzodiazepines that are specifically marketed as hypnotics in the United States or in Canada: flurazepam, temazepam, triazolam, estazolam, quazepam, and (in Canada only) nitrazepam. Several other benzodiazepines (e.g., lorazepam, clonazepam, oxazepam),… Read More »

Current Therapies for Insomnia

Most individuals who suffer from insomnia either self-treat with nonprescription sleep aids (e.g., antihistamines, herbal remedies), use alcohol as a sedative, or take no drug therapy at all. For those who do seek professional help (approximately one-third of insomniacs), the majority receive physician-prescribed benzodiazepine or non-benzodiazepine sedative hypnotics to treat their insomnia. Such hypnotic agents… Read More »

Benzodiazepine Hypnotics

Benzodiazepine hypnotics can be categorized into three groups based on their pharmacokinetic characteristics: short-acting, intermediate-acting, and long-acting. Short-acting benzodiazepines such as triazolam (Pfizer’s Halcion, generics) generally have elimination half-lives of 6 hours or less; intermediate-acting benzodiazepines such as temazepam (Mallinckrodf s Restoril, generics), oxazepam (Wyeth’s Serax / Serepax, Boehringer-Ingelheim’s Adumbran, generics), and lormetazepam (Wyeth’s Loramet,… Read More »

Nonbenzodiazepine Hypnotics

Non-benzodiazepine hypnotics were introduced in most markets in the early 1990s. To date, three non-benzodiazepine hypnotics have been launched for insomnia — zolpidem, zopiclone, and zaleplon (Wyeth and King Pharmaceuticals’ Sonata). Characteristics that distinguish these drugs from traditional benzodiazepines (discussed later) are their increased receptor-binding specificity, favorable pharmacokinetics, and overall broader range of safety. More… Read More »

Treatment of Anxiety in the Medically Ill

Psychotherapy An overemphasis on psychopharmacology in the care of medically ill patients may result in overlooking the value of psychotherapy. The first step in the treatment of anxiety is to spend time listening to and talking with the patient. Just as in psychotherapy with any patient, empathic listening is a powerful tool to relieve distress.… Read More »

Treatment of late-onset mental disorder with antidepressants and neuroleptics

Drug treatment of late-life depression or schizophrenia is of great importance, as the functional psychoses are among the most common psychiatric diseases in the elderly. It therefore seems astonishing that there are great deficits in the drug research that has been done with this age group. There are almost no studies specifically on the treatment… Read More »

Treatment for Anxiety Disorders in the Medically Ill

Treatment of anxiety disorders in the medically ill depends upon the relationship between anxiety symptoms and physical disease. Some patients have persisting symptoms or exacerbations of anxiety disorders that existed before the onset of physical disease. In that case, treatment should be similar to that given to patients without comorbid illness. Other patients, perhaps the… Read More »

Drugs Facilitating Sleep

Drugs of Choice for Insomnia Treatment The drug class of choice for the symptomatic treatment of insomnia is the benzodiazepine receptor agonist (National Institute of Mental Health, 1984). The class name is derived from the recognized mechanism of these drugs. Some have the benzodiazepine chemical structure, whereas others do not. However, they all share the… Read More »

Combining Behavioral and Pharmacological Treatments

Benzodiazepine hypnotics continue to be widely prescribed for insomnia (). Many patients who request treatment at sleep disorders centers are reluctant to withdraw from hypnotics for fear that their sleep will become substantially worse. This fear is not entirely unfounded; benzodiazepine withdrawal symptoms have been well documented and may last as long as 4 or… Read More »

Pharmacological Treatment Of Restless Legs Syndrome

Dopaminergic Agents in the Treatment Of Restless Legs Syndrome Levodopa was the first dopaminergic agent found effective in restless legs syndrome and has since shown evidence of efficacy in controlled trials. Benes et al. found improved quality of sleep, reduced sleep latency, and better quality of life with levodopa / benserazide given in a single… Read More »