Tag Archives: Tenuate

Treatment of Insomnia

Several classes of medications are used in the treatment of insomnia. They include the benzodiazepines, non-benzodiazepine hypnotics, antidepressants, and over-the-counter medications. There are six benzodiazepines that are specifically marketed as hypnotics in the United States or in Canada: flurazepam, temazepam, triazolam, estazolam, quazepam, and (in Canada only) nitrazepam. Several other benzodiazepines (e.g., lorazepam, clonazepam, oxazepam),… Read More »

Information about Anxiety Disorders for Patients and Families

Anxiety disorders are a group of disorders that have different causes but share many symptoms. Anxiety disorders are the most common of the psychiatric illnesses. The core symptoms of anxiety disorders are nervousness, worry, and fear. The patient’s symptoms may cause distress and result in some functional impairment. In the spectrum of anxiety disorders, anxieties… Read More »

Overview of New Anxiolytics

Although the benzodiazepines have been the treatment of choice for anxiety disorders for many years, unfavorable aspects to their side-effect profile have initiated efforts to develop new-generation antianxiety agents. Over the past decade, scientists have been searching for compounds that retain the robust anxiolytic efficacy of benzodiazepines, but lack a number of unwanted properties, including… Read More »

Minor Depression

Etiology and Pathophysiology Minor depression is only a proposed diagnosis in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, and there are no International Classification of Diseases codes to categorize it. The proposed diagnostic category for minor depression in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition describes a depressive disorder that… Read More »

Specific Migraine-Preventive Agents: Serotonin Antagonists

The antiserotonin, migraine-preventive drugs are potent 5-HT2B- and 5-HT2C-receptor antagonists, whereas metachlorophenyl piperazine (mCPP), a 5-HT2B- and 5-HT2C-receptor agonist, induces migraine in susceptible individuals. Methysergide, cyproheptadine, and pizotifen, effective migraine prophylactic drugs, are 5-HT2B-and 5-HT2C-receptor antagonists, whereas ketanserin, a selective 5-HT2A- and a poor 5-HT2B- and 5-HT2C-receptor antagonist, is not. mCPP, a major metabolite of… Read More »

Specific Migraine-Preventive Agents: Anticonvulsants

Anticonvulsant medication is increasingly recommended for migraine prevention, because it was proved to be effective by placebo-controlled, double-blind trials. With the exceptions of valproic acid, topiramate, and zonisamide, anticonvulsants may interfere substantially with the efficacy of oral contraceptives. Nine controlled trials of five different anticonvulsants were included in the AHCPR Technical Report. Carbamazepine The only… Read More »

How Can Personality Alter Antidepressant Effects?

Antidepressant treatments are generally more effective for people with moderately severe and circumscribed episodes of depression (). In many ways, depression chronicity and antidepressant responsiveness are strongly correlated with various psychosocial factors (). For example, patients with good social supports tend to respond better to treatment (), as do patients who are compliant with treatment… Read More »

Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents: Treatment

Overview With the emergence of a rich psychopathology literature covering all the important domains of child and adolescent symptomatology, pediatric psychiatry and psychology have moved away from nonspecific interventions toward problem-focused treatments keyed to specific DSM-IV-TR diagnoses (). In particular, the past 40 years have seen the emergence of diverse, sophisticated, empirically supported cognitive-behavioral therapies… Read More »

Ketamine And Other NMDA Antagonists

Ketamine is an anaesthetic drug with a few notable features which have resulted in its introduction to pain clinic practice. The rationale for its use is supported by animal studies which allow tentative conclusions to be drawn about a mechanism of action. However, the extrapolation of animal data, based on electrophysiological and behavioural studies, to… Read More »

Mild to Moderate Alzheimer’s Disease

Mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is that disease stage where cognitive, functional and increasingly the behavioural symptoms affect everyday life. By this stage the diagnosis can generally be made clinically with considerable confidence. Although biological markers that are in development may help diagnostically in the future, they still have not found their way into… Read More »