Tag Archives: Tofranil

What medications are used to treat ADHD in women and girls?

Research and clinical experience have shown that stimulant medications are the most effective first-line treatment for ADHD in both males and females. Currently, there are many medication formulations, including stimulants (methylphenidate and amphetamine preparations) and nonstimulants for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Although a few skeptics continue to voice concerns over the prescription of medication… Read More »

Information about ADHD for Patients and Families

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric disorder in young and school-aged children. However, it is not merely a childhood disorder. In recent years, an increasing number of adults have been diagnosed with ADHD, raising some concern that it may be overdiagnosed. Estimates of the prevalence (i.e., percentage of the population affected) of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder… Read More »

Minor Depression: Tricyclic Antidepressant

Tricyclic antidepressants entered the market in the 1960s after the Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors but quickly lost their popularity when the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors entered the market. Although tricyclic antidepressants are as effective as the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors in treating most forms of depression, they have the potential for cardiotoxicity… Read More »

Minor Depression: Escitalopram, Paroxetine, Sertraline, and Fluoxetine

Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors The seven available agents in the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor class are citalopram (Lund-beck’s Cipramil, Forest Laboratories’ Celexa, generics) and its single enan-tiomer, escitalopram (Lundbeck’s Cipralex, Forest’s Lexapro); paroxetine (GSK’s Paxil/Seroxat, Novartis’s Frosinor, generics); the controlled-release version of paroxetine (GSK’s Paxil CR); sertraline (Pfizer’s Zoloft); fluoxetine (Eli Lilly’s Prozac, generics); and… Read More »

Minor Depression: Neurokinin Antagonists

Overview A new neurotransmitter system being targeted for the treatment of minor depression is a family of three related peptides known as neurokinins; the most interesting of these is the NK substance P. Two more neurokinins, not extensively investigated in the area of depression, are NK A and NK B. The specific receptor subtypes that… Read More »

Bipolar Disorder – Chronic Illness

Etiology and Pathophysiology Bipolar disorder is a chronic illness characterized by recurrent episodes of aberrant mood. Episodes may manifest with symptoms of mania, hypomania (a less severe form of mania), depression, or a mixture of both depression and mania. Mania is characterized by persistently elevated, expansive, or highly irritable mood that typically lasts for at… Read More »

Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents: Pharmacotherapy

With advances in the identification of child- and adolescent-onset anxiety () has come a concomitant increase in the application of pharmacological treatments borrowed in part from successful strategies applied in adult populations with similar disorders (). Conversely, although psychopharmacological interventions are increasingly recognized as an essential part of the treatment armamentarium for anxious youths (),… Read More »

Eating Disorders

Concern with eating disorders is relatively new and is found primarily in countries where abundance of food creates options of self-starvation or excessive eating. The media in the United States have stressed the desirability of thinness for women, as models, ballet dancers, and actresses are invariably very thin. Author Tom Wolfe, in The Bonfire of… Read More »

Eating Disorders: Assessment

People suffering from anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa have rigid, distorted attitudes about weight, eating, and fatness. Assessment often reveals an extreme interest in the preparation and planning of meals. Many will shop very carefully and take great pleasure in the preparation and presentation of meals, even if, in the case of those who suffer… Read More »

Eating Disorders: Clinical Course

The line between dieting and suffering from an eating disorder is not always clear, and if a clinician simply follows the DSM criteria, recognition of the extent of the problem may be delayed. A person may be losing significant weight but continue to menstruate; some people suffering from obesity may binge without purging; people may… Read More »