Tag Archives: Valium

Benzodiazepine Hypnotics

Benzodiazepine hypnotics can be categorized into three groups based on their pharmacokinetic characteristics: short-acting, intermediate-acting, and long-acting. Short-acting benzodiazepines such as triazolam (Pfizer’s Halcion, generics) generally have elimination half-lives of 6 hours or less; intermediate-acting benzodiazepines such as temazepam (Mallinckrodf s Restoril, generics), oxazepam (Wyeth’s Serax / Serepax, Boehringer-Ingelheim’s Adumbran, generics), and lormetazepam (Wyeth’s Loramet,… Read More »

Caffeine and Psychotropics

Question. Are there any psychotropics that have a negative interaction with caffeine? Is caffeine bad for people with certain disorders? Answer. There are certainly psychotropics that can interact with caffeine in clinically important ways, though not always in bad ways. First, though, it’s important to distinguish two types of drug-drug interactions. In one type of… Read More »

Information about Bipolar Disorder for Patients and Families

Bipolar disorder, also called manic-depressive disorder, is a recurrent illness in which the individual’s mood cycles between depression and mania with periods of normality. The illness is a mood disorder. The individual’s moods may swing from manic euphoria, with boundless energy in pursuit of grandiose plans, to depths of depression, with feelings of despair and… Read More »

Information about Anxiety Disorders for Patients and Families

Anxiety disorders are a group of disorders that have different causes but share many symptoms. Anxiety disorders are the most common of the psychiatric illnesses. The core symptoms of anxiety disorders are nervousness, worry, and fear. The patient’s symptoms may cause distress and result in some functional impairment. In the spectrum of anxiety disorders, anxieties… Read More »

Information about Alzheimer’s Disease for Patients and Families

Alzheimer’s disease is the most common and well-known form of degenerative dementia. By definition, dementia is a syndrome, a cluster of symptoms, of impaired memory and cognition. Dementia is a cognitive disorder that impairs an individual’s memory and ability for reasoning, awareness, and judgment. Cognitive impairment in Alzheimer’s disease may involve disturbance of language (aphasia),… Read More »

Minor Depression: Escitalopram, Paroxetine, Sertraline, and Fluoxetine

Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors The seven available agents in the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor class are citalopram (Lund-beck’s Cipramil, Forest Laboratories’ Celexa, generics) and its single enan-tiomer, escitalopram (Lundbeck’s Cipralex, Forest’s Lexapro); paroxetine (GSK’s Paxil/Seroxat, Novartis’s Frosinor, generics); the controlled-release version of paroxetine (GSK’s Paxil CR); sertraline (Pfizer’s Zoloft); fluoxetine (Eli Lilly’s Prozac, generics); and… Read More »

The place of drug treatment in psychiatry

It is difficult to overstate the central role that drug treatment plays in modern-day psychiatry. Psychiatric hospitals and community mental health team activities revolve around the various rituals of drug treatment. A United Kingdom survey of psychiatric hospitals found that 98-100% of inpatients were prescribed drugs and that most take several different ones at the… Read More »

Specific Sleep Events

More than just five stages compose a night of sleep. A large number of events occur that are not reflected in standard sleep staging. Depression and anxiety also affect some of these micro events. An as yet little-explored possibility is that these micro events may contribute to subjective reports of poor sleep independently of that… Read More »

Types of Substances

Because there is great variation among methods of use, tolerance levels, withdrawal symptoms, and intervention, each category will be discussed separately. Substances that are prone to abuse generally fall into six categories: (1) sedatives and central nervous system (CNS) depressants, (2) opioid narcotics, (3) stimulants, (4) psychedelics or hallucinogens, (5) marijuana and hashish, and (6)… Read More »

Antiepileptic Drugs

Antiepileptic drugs are a class of medications developed to treat people with seizures. Tremendous effort and resources have been dedicated to epilepsy research. In the last years new antiepileptic drugs have become available for use. Even more surprisingly, these drugs have been found to improve the lives of people with a variety of medical disorders… Read More »