Tag Archives: Zonegran

Chronic Illness: Current Therapies

The main goal of bipolar disorder drug treatment is to establish euthymia (stable mood with a persistent sense of well-being) without inducing mania or rapid cycling (i.e., four or more mood episodes in a 12-month period). For this reason, drug treatment usually consists of an agent or, more frequently, combinations of agents that exert both… Read More »

Treatment Of The Child Or Adolescent With Newly Diagnosed Epilepsy

Paediatric epilepsy is amazingly diverse. In some children, basic diagnosis, seizure classification and treatment are straightforward. Other patients have difficult-to-diagnose seizures, complicated seizure classification and a variable response to treatment. Some seizures are subclinical, others are barely noticeable, and occasionally they are life threatening. Many children with epilepsy have no associated disabilities, but all children… Read More »

Which of the drugs appears to be the most effective preventative drug for children and adolescents with headaches?

Which of the following appears to be the most effective preventative medication for children and adolescents with migraine headaches? A. Propranolol (Inderal) B. Gabapentin (Neurontin) C. Topiramate (Topamax) D. Levetiracetam (Keppra) E. Zonisamide (Zonegran) The answer is C. Data on preventative medication for children and adolescents with migraine headaches is sparse, as noted by the… Read More »

What is therapeutic gain?

What is therapeutic gain? A. The improvement in quality of living gained by headache relief. B. The percentage response for active treatment minus the percentage response for placebo. C. The minimum response that can be reliably expected from treatment. D. The percentage response with active treatment. E. The consistent improvement seen each time treatment is… Read More »

Which combination of drugs has the greatest risk of serious cutaneous disorders?

Which combination of medications has the greatest risk of serious cutaneous disorders? A. Pregabalin (Lyrica) and valproic acid (Depakene) B. Divalproex sodium (Depakote) and topiramate (Topamax) C. Gabapentin (Neurontin) and lamotrigine (Lamictal) D. Divalproex sodium and lamotrigine (Lamictal) E. Zonisamide (Zonegran) and oxcarbazepine (Trileptal) The answer is D. Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis… Read More »

Which drug can increase the metabolism and decrease the efficacy of oral contraceptives?

Which medication can increase the metabolism and decrease the efficacy of oral contraceptives? A. Tegretol B. Oxcarbazepine (Trileptal) C. Phenytoin (Dilantin) D. Topiramate (Topamax) E. All of the above The answer is E. Medications with predominantly hepatic metabolism may decrease the efficacy of oral contraceptives, especially when higher-thanusual doses of the medications are combined with… Read More »

Match the drug used for headache prevention or treatment with its caution…

Match the medication used for headache prevention or treatment with its caution or contraindication. Each answer can be used once, more than once, or not at all. A. Zonisamide (Zonegran) B. Phenelzine (Nardil) C. Verapamil (Calan) D. Amitriptyline (Elavil) E. Topiramate (Topamax) 1. Concomitant use of lithium 2. Allergy to sulfa medications 3. Concomitant use… Read More »

Oral contraceptives reduce the level of which drug by up to 50%?

Oral contraceptives reduce the level of which drug by up to 50%? A. Gabapentin (Neurontin) B. Divalproex sodium (Depakote) C. Lamotrigine (Lamictal) D. Zonisamide (Zonegran) E. All of the above The answer is C. Ethinyl estradiol induces the main metabolic enzyme for lamotrigine (Lamictal), and levels may be reduced by up to 50% in women… Read More »

Antiepileptic Drugs

Antiepileptic drugs are a class of medications developed to treat people with seizures. Tremendous effort and resources have been dedicated to epilepsy research. In the last years new antiepileptic drugs have become available for use. Even more surprisingly, these drugs have been found to improve the lives of people with a variety of medical disorders… Read More »

Anticonvulsant Drugs

Pharmacologic Profile General Use Anticonvulsants are used to decrease the incidence and severity of seizures due various etiologies. Some anticonvulsants are used parenterally in the immediate treatment of seizures. It is not uncommon for patients to require more than one anticonvulsant to control seizures on a long-term basis. Many regimens are evaluated with serum level… Read More »